286

BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC.

the characters by which they had been separated from S. helico- jjliylla Mont. S. microcarpa C. Miill. he considered to be a variety of S. helicophylla Mont., and two new varieties of that species were described vars. tenuis and macrospora the latter remarkable for its large spores, 35-45 /x. In the course of his remarks on other species of the genus, Mr. Salmon observed that S.fragilis Mitt, is peculiar in the bistratose structure of the leaf, and S, socotrana Mitt, (doubtfully included in the genus in the absence of fruit), in the papillose cells. 8. circinata Besch. and S. usamharica Broth, he would exclude from the genus, and pointed out that the former species, from Grande Comoro and La Reunion, comprises two distinct mosses. Mr. 0. B. Clarke gave a summary of a paper " On the Subdivision of Biological Areas in India," and in the course of his remarks mentioned some interesting facts in con- nection with plant distribution in the Indo-Oriental Eegion. Dr. Stapf, in commenting on the paper, expressed the opinion that the limits of the subdivisions proposed were natural, and might well be accepted by botanists.

Mr. a. Somerville sends us a nicely printed sheet from which may be seen at a glance the County and Vice-County Divisions of the British Isles (for biological purposes), in accordance with To^io- grajyhical Botany for England and Scotland, an:l for Ireland with Mr. Praeger's divisions as published in this Journal for February, 1896. Mr. Somerville adds some useful notes on the divisions. Copies may be had post-free in millboard tube from A. C. Burns, 383, Sauchiehall Street, Glasgow, for 4d.

Mr. J. B. Carruthers has issued an interesting and important preliminary report on the Cocoa disease, which, at the invitation of the Planters' Association, he has been studying in Ceylon. This report gives the results of his observations on diseased trees, and of his culture and inoculation experiments : although their life- history is not yet fully worked out, he has thrown considerable light on the nature of the fungi causing the Cocoa disease. There seem to be two distinct vegetable parasites which attack the Cocoa plant. One is a fungus which attacks the pods and plays immense havoc, for by its means alone nearly fifty per cent, of the crop is destroyed or reduced very much in value : Mr. Carruthers has succeeded in cultivating this fungus and in discovering its repro- ductive bodies, proving by this means that it belongs to the group typified by the well-known Potato disease. Successful inoculation with this fungus was made from one pod to another. The other fungus attacks the stems, producing canker : in this also repro- ductive bodies (spores) were discovered, and successful inoculation experiments made. As one would expect, moisture is most essential for the growth of both these fungi, as is shown by the fact that to obtain successful inoculation results in dry weather artificial moisture must be supplied ; this suggests that, as far as the canker is con- cerned, shading should be reduced as much as possible. Although this report is only preliminary, Mr. Carruthers shows clearly that the first step has been made towards combatting the Cocoa disease ;

BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 287

with a full and complete knowledge of the hfe-history of the parasites producing the diseased condition, its prevention and cure will, it is hoped, be an easy matter. The Ceylon Observer of May 24 speaks in very comphmentary terms of Mr. Carruthers's work.

We are glad to note that the examiners in botany at the London University have recommended Mr. A. B. Rendle for the degree of Doctor of Science.

Mr. E. D. Marquand publishes in the Transactions of the Guernsey Society of Natural Science for 1897 an enumeration of " The Fungi of Guernsey." The list contains 456 species, two of which— (7/i7o- pilus sarnicus and Verticillium. Marquandii are new to science. These are named by Mr. Massee, to whom "every specimen'"' in the list has been submitted: unfortunately only the names of these two novelties are pubHshed, without any diagnosis.

A WORK will shortly be published by Messrs. Chapman & Hall entitled Medical Works of the Fourteenth Century. It consists of transcripts of four MSS.— three in the British Museum and one in the possession of the editor, the Rev. Professor Henslow. These MSS. are apparently miscellaneous collections of prescriptions, mcluding charms, etc., and illustrate the crude ideas of medicine and surgery in the middle ages. The composition of drugs is often remarkable for the number of plants used from twenty to fifty being not uncommonly employed in the same remedy. Mr. Henslow has received help from Prof. Skeat, who has contributed notes to the work.

The "March" number of the Kew Bulletin (published in May) contams a hst (by Mr. J. M. Wood) of plants and fruits used by natives of the Ubombo district of Zululand as food during times of scarcity. The new number (the sixth) of the Journal of the Kew Guild has a pleasant portrait of Prof. Daniel Oliver, accompanied by a short biographical sketch by Mr. Hemsley.

Messrs. Colman have issued an advertisement card containing small coloured figures of nearly a hundred British plants. Althou^^h some of the figures— e. g. that of lucerne— are far from accurate, the plants as a whole are fairly recognizable, and teachers in ele- mentary schools might do worse than obtain a copy, though by so doing they will of course be advertising the various wares of the proprietors. But it is fair to add that, as things go, the advertise- ment is unobtrusive.

Mr. George Allen has issued a pretty little book of plant-gossip under the title of Floiver Favourites, by Lizzie Deas (sm. 8vo, pp. 229, price _3s. 6d. net). The author deals with the "legends, symbolism,'

and significance" of flowers, in the manner familiar to readers and compilers of this kind of book. She quotes as authentic Forster's spurious antique which figures in every popular work dealing with flower-lore, and "old legends," whose age is at least doubtful. Nor IS her botany beyond reproach; e.g. she speaks of the "red- blossomed sweet-scented clematis flammula " (p. 145). The author

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Bibliotheque botanique

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THE

JOURNAL OF BOTANY,

BEITISH AND rOEEMN.

EDITED BY

JAMES BRITTEN, K.S.G., F.L.S.,

Senior Assistant, Department of Botany, British Museum (Natural History).

VOL. XXXVI.

LLUSTRATED WITH PLATES.

new YORK

BOTANICAL

ClAltUeM

LONDON:

WEST, NEWMAN & CO., 54, HATTON GARDEN,

1898.

LONDON :

WEST, NEWMAN AND CO., PRINTERS,

HATTON GARDEN, E.G.

CONTEIBUTORS

TO THE PRESENT VOLUME.

Eleanora Armitage. J. E. Bagnall, A.L.S, E. G. Baker, F.L.S. Ethel S. Barton. John Benbow, F.L.S. Arthur Bennett, F.L.S. G. S. BOULGER, F.L.S.

S. A. Brenan.

James Britten, F.L.S.

G. L. Bruce, M.A.

G. B. Bullock- Webster, M.A.

AViLLiAM Carruthers, F.R.S.

A. Craig- Christie, F.L.S.

Miller Christy, F.L.S.

C. Crouch.

H. N. Dixon, M.A., F.L.S.

A. H. WOLLEY DOD.

G. C. Druce, M.A., F.L.S. S. T. Dunn, B.A., F.L.S. W. L. W. Ey. E. J. Bretland Farmer, M.A.,

F.L.S. H. W. Feilden. Antony Gepp, M.A., F.L.S.

G. GoODE.

Henry Groves, F.L.S. James Groves, F.L.S. W. P. Hamilton. W. P. Hiern, M.A., F.L.S.

E. C. HORRELL.

A. B. Jackson.

B. Daydon Jackson, Sec.L.S. Augustin Ley, M.A.

E. F. Linton, M.A. Arthur Lister, F.R.S. Gulielma Lister. Symers M. Mac vicar.

E. S. Marshall, M.A., F.L.S. J. Cosmo Melvill, M.A., F.L.S. Spencer le M. Moore, F.L.S. G. R. M. Murray, F.R.S.

E. A. Woodruffe-Peacock, F.L.S.

W. H. Pearson.

R. Ll. Praeger.

R. Frank Rand, M.D., F.L.S.

A. B. Rendle, D.Sc, F.L.S.

H. N. Ridley, M.A., F.L.S.

F. A. Rogers.

W. MoYLE Rogers, F.L.S. C. E. Salmon.

E. S. Salmon.

R. SCHLECHTER.

S. Schonland, M.A., Ph.D. W. A. Shoolbred, M.R.C.S. Annie L. Smith. W. G. Smith, F.L.S. Frederic Stratton, F.L.S. Lilian M. Swan. e. w. swanton. H. S. Thompson. Ella M. Tindall. r. f. towndrow. Frederick Townsend, M.A.,

F.L.S. John Weathers.

G. S. West, B.A. W. West, F.L.S. W^ West, Jun., B.A. James W. White, F.L.S. J. A. Wheldon.

W. Whitwell, F.L.S.

F. N. Williams, F.L.S. A. Zahlbruckner, Ph.D.

Directions

to Bi

nder.

Tab. 381 ... .

to face page 1

382

41

383

73

,, 384

209

385

113

386

161

387

241

Tabs. 388. 389

289

Tab. 390

329

Tabs. 391, 392

409

Tab. 393

.

,

465

Or all may be placed together at the end of the volume.

Tab 381

Fu"Mbrgaii dd-etTith . IVest^NevraiaiL imp

Exiplirasia. Cana-dexisis rhov. sp.

LI8RART HEW YORK BUTAfSICAi.

THE

JOURNAL OF BOTANY

BRITISH AND FOREIGN.

EUPHRASIA CANADENSIS, nov. sp.

By Frederick Townsend, M.A., F.L.S.

(Plate 381.)

Caulis erectus, in parte inferiore ramosiis, ad 13 cm. altus, viridis vel rubescens, pilis crispulis albidis reversis obsitus, ramis paucis oppositis erectis elongatis simplicibus. Folia oblonga cuneata obtusa, inferiora dentibus obtnsis, superiora dentilms injimis aristatis. Bracteae subopposit^e erecto-patentes, latitudine folia caulina super- antes, ovat^ breviter acuminatse, in parte inferiore latissim^, iitrinque dentibus 5, dentibus snperiorihus acutis ; inferioribns m aristam rectam prolcmr/ntis, bractese summse basi cuneatae. Folia omnia viridia, fere glabra sed in regione marginali et in pagina superiore et inferiore setulis minutissimis sparsis et in pafjina inferiore pilis paucis glanduliferis hrevihus intermixtis obsita. Spica initio condensata, mox valde elongata et condensata. Calyx dentibus late triangulari-lanceolatis aristatis subpatentibus, fruc- tifer accretus, in margine et in nervis setulis parvis obsitus. Corolla parva alba ?, 7 mill, longa, tubo brevi, labio superiore bilobo, lobis emarginatis aut erosis, labio inferiore trilobo, lobis subsequalibus emarginatis. Capsula oblongo-obovata truncata vel subemarginata mucronata, mucrone capsulam superante, in parte superiore setulis minimis sparsis obsita et in margine sparse ciliata, calycis dentes aequans vel superans, bracteam subaequaus vel superans.

In collibus graminosis prope Quebec. Aug., Sept.

I gathered this Euphrasia in 1891, and, being new to me, I provisionally named it, but for various reasons it has until lately remained neglected in my herbarium. I now take the opportunity of recording and describing it, as I still think it distinct ; and I believe Prof. Wettstein inclines to the same opinion, though he may reserve his final judgment.

I only know Euphrasia americana Wetts. from Prof. Wettstein's description and figure in his monograph of the genus. It is de- scribed as a slender plant branching from the middle and above it, its bracts with a cuneate base, without glandular hairs, and the lower teeth aristate ; the flower-spikes neither dense nor elongated.

Journal of Botany. Vol. 36. [Jan. 1898.] b

2 NEW SOMALILAND POLYPETAL^E.

Among European species E. canadensis has somewhat the habit of E. stricta Host = E. crlcetorum Jord., from which it differs by the branches being confined to the lower portion of the stem, by its opposite and gLandnlar bracts with fewer teeth, the upper teeth being less acute and not aristate, by the capsule being broader at the apex and truncate and exceeding the calyx-teeth, &c.

E. Canadensis differs from £". horealis Towns., in which the branches are not confined to the lower portion of the stem, and they are erect-patent and not so prolonged, the teeth of its leaves and bracts are less acute, and its capsule is decidedly emarginate.

As to the history of E. canadensis, it is difHcult to form an opinion without further knowledge of its present geographical distribution ; whether it be an importation from Europe at a remote though historic period, modified by climatic or other in- fluences, or whether it be the descendant of an ancient but indi- genous form. As regards E. americana Wetts., Prof. Wettstein inclines to the idea of importation, as stated in his Monograph, p. 128.

Desckiption of Plate 381. 1. Euphrasia canadensis, nov. sp., nat. size.

a. Uppermost leaf. ]

b. Lowest bract. \ All enlarged.

c. Capsule.

NEW SOMALILAND POLYPETAL^. By Edmund G. Baker, F.L.S.

Ma^thiola dimolehensis, sp.n. Herba basi lignosa omnino cinereo-pubescens vel subtomentosa, foliis ellipticis vel oblanceolatis, apice acutis, lamina in petiolum decurrente, margine integerrimis subsinuatis vel obsolete sinuato-dentatis, peduncuhs axillaribus solitariis erecto-patentibus et apicem versus aggregatis, sepalis cinereo-tomentosis vel sublanatis, petalis late obovatis in unguem longam attenuatis (in statu sicco purpureis), stylo brevissimo, filamentis liberis, siliquis teretibus vel obtuse subquadrangularibus, valvis crassiusculis intus transverse septatis quam siliquis M. elliptic^ E. Br. multo brevioribus, circiter 6-8-spermis, seminibus pallide brunneis.

Hab. Somaliland, Wagga Mountains, Mrs. E. Lort PhiUips. Dimoleh, Messrs. Gillett d Aylmer.

Closely allied to M. elliptica R. Br., and, like that plant, a diffuse or bushy herb, woody below, with branches, leaves, &c., covered with a close cinereous or hoary tomentum. Leaves ellip- tical or oblanceolate, apex acute, margin entire or obscurely sinuate-dentate, lamina at the base narrowing gradually to bottom of petioles, lamina measured from point of insertion of petioles 2-2 f in. long, breadth at broadest point f-f in. Pedicels short, erecfc, covered with hoary tomentum, axillary and solitary, but

NEW SOMALILAND POLYPETAL^. 6

crowded near apex. Sepals with rather more woolly tomentum than in M. elliptica. Filaments not joined. Style very short; stigmas converging, forming a triangular tip to the ovary. Petals broadly rotund, obovate, gradually narrowing into rather a long claw (pinkish purple when dried), rather more than 1 in. long. Capsule about i in. long (perhaps not quite ripe), covered with rather stiff hairs somewhat similar to those on capsule of Papaver hyhridum L., about 6-8-seeded.

This plant differs from M. elliptica R. Br. more particularly in the capsule, which is, as has just been stated, stiffly hirsute, not covered with a close tomentum, much shorter, and much fewer- seeded.

Prof. Oliver (Fl. Trop. Africa, i. 57) states that the ripe siliqua of M. elliptica R. Br. had not then been seen. Specimens of this plant are also in the collection from Wagga Mts., Boresti, and Dimoleh ; the ripe siliqua attains a length of 2i to rather more than 8 in. long.

Mathiola dimolehensis differs from Morettia Revoili Franchet, Sert. Somal. 10, t. 1 (in Revoile, Faune et Flore des Pays Coinalis, 1882), by the capsule being fewer- seeded, and by the shape of the petals being not so cuneate. Another aUied plant is Mathiola Smithii Bak. fil. in Journ. Bot. 1896, 50, which differs in its strongly bicusped capsule.

Melhania somalensis, sp. n. Caulis tenuis teres ramosus tenuiter stellatim cano-pnbescens demum glabratus, ramulis tereti- bus superne (an exsiccatione tantum ?) complanatis, foliis modice petiolatis lanceolatis vel oblongo-lanceolatis, basi rotundatis vel subcordatis serratis utrinque cano-pubescentibus subtus pallidiori- bus, stipulis subulatis quam petiolis subduplo brevioribus, floribus axillaribus, pedunculis solitariis unifloris, bracteis linearibus quam calyce subduplo brevioribus demum reflexis, sepahs lanceolatis externe cano-pubescentibus valde acuminatis, petahs sub^qui- longis, capsula columnari externe cano-pubescente, loculis 4-8- spermis.

Hab. Somaliland. Sheikhusin, Dr. Donaldson Smith. In flower and fruit Sept. 1894. No. 152.

Wiry, probably annual, scarcely woody at the base, erect, branched, 1 ft. (possibly more) high, branches ascending, especially towards the extremities, cano-stellately pubescent, and somewhat flattened. Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, often about li in. long, 5 lines broad, rounded at the base, serrate, covered with a close tomentum above and below, greenish above, lighter- coloured below ; petiole 4 lines long. Stipules subulate. Flowers axillary, peduncle rather over | in. long. Bracts linear-lanceolate, about half as long as sepals. Sepals very acuminate, externally cano-pubescent. Capsule columnar, cano -pubescent externally, not pointed at the top, ^ in. high. Loculi 4-8-seeded, seeds somewhat angular.

This plant may be easily recognized by the narrow bracts, the very acuminate sepals, the leaves 3-4 times longer than broad, and the carpels with 4-8 seeds in each loculus.

4 NE'^' SOMALILAND POLYPETAL^E.

Melhania Phillipsiae, sp.n. Saffmtex erectus,^ caule dense flavescenti-tomentoso, foliis ellipticis vel ovatis modice petiolatis utrinqne tomentosis mollibus, margine serratis, basi subcordatis, apice obtusis, stipiilis subulatis qiiam petiolis subtriplobrevioribus, pedun- culis axillaribus saepissime 3-tloris, pedicellis quam pedimculis brevioribus, bracteis reniformibus acutis vel breviter acuminatis, post anthesin accrescentibus et scariosis reticulato-venosis, sepalis anguste ovato-lanceolatis concavis quam capsula loDgioribus, petalis in statu sicco flavis, capsula globosa 5-loculari exterue stellato- hirsuta, loculis 2-3-spermis, seminibus angulatis pubescentibus.

Hab. Somaliland. Soksoda and Wagga Mts., Mrs. E. Lort Phillips.

This plant is suffruticose erect, stem covered with a velvety- flavescent tomentum. Leaves elliptical or oval, margin irregularly serrate, base subcordate, both sides tomentose, under side lighter- coloured, lamina 1|-2| in. long, 1^-2 in. broad, petiole f to rather over 1 in. long. Stipules linear, often about 4 lines long. Peduncles axillary, |— f in. long, generally 3-flowered, pedicels shorter than peduncles, ^ to nearly | in. long, both peduncles and pedicels hairy. Bracts reniform, acute or shortly acuminate, tomentose when young, enlarging much in fruiting stage, becoming scarious, reticulate- veined. Sepals 5, lanceolate, concave, externally covered with white hairs, longer than capsule. Petals yellow when dried, about 6 lines long. Capsule globose, stellately hairy externally, about 4 lines high, not pointed. Loculi 2-3-seeded; seeds angular, pubescent.

Allied to M. Forhesii Planchon.

It seems advisable to give a list of the Tropical African species of Melhania, much having been added since the publication of the Flora of Tropical Africa, especially in regard to Somaliland, which was at that time comparatively unexplored.

Tropical African Species of Melhania.

A. Bracts reniform. Loculi 1-2-seeded. Stem and leaves covered with a close cinereous tomentum (in M. Venhami R. Br. var. grandibracteata K. Schum. it is very soft).

1. M. Denhami R. Br. in Denh. Clapp. Trav. App. 233.

Hab. Senegambia ; Kordofan ; Mozambique District ; Somali- land {fide K. Schum.) ; also occurs in Arabia and Scinde.

Var. grandibracteata K. Schum. in Ann. 1st. Roma, vii. 34.

Hab. Somaliland, near Menehan ; Riva, Nos. 440, 441 (jide K. Schum.).

2. M. MURicATA Balf. fil. in Proc. Roy. Soc. Edin. xi. (1882), 503, tab. vii. A.

Hab. Somaliland. Wagga Mts., Mrs. E. Lort Phillips. Originally described from Socotra.

B. Bracts reniform. Loculi 2-3-seeded. Leaves clothed with a soft velvety more or less flavescent tomentum.

3. M. Phillipsi^ Bak. fil.

NEW SOMALILAND POLYPETAL^. O

Hab. Somaliland. Soksoda and Wagga Mts., Mrs. E. Lort Phillips.

C. Bracts broadly ovate or ovate, often very acuminate. Loculi 2-ao-seeded.

4. M. FERRUGiNEA A. Eicliard, Fl. Abyss, i. 76.

Hab. Nile Land ; Mozambique District ; Lower Gmnea ; also collected in Somaliland by Mrs. E. Lort Phillips.

Probably identical witb M. veliUina Forsk., m wbich case this name must take precedence.

5. M. ACUMINATA Mastcrs in Oliver, Fl. Trop. Afr. i. 23L Hab. Mozambique District. Occurs also in Matabele Country.

6. M. FoRBESii Planclion ex Masters, I. c.

Hab. Mozambique District ; Lower Guinea. Eecorded also from Omatope, in Amboland (Jide H. Scbinz).

7. M. Steudneri Schweinf. in Verb. Zool. Bot.AVien (1868), 672. Hab. Nile Land. Bogos, Steiidner, No. 1162.

D. Bracts lanceolate. Loculi 2- oo -seeded.

8. M. iNCANA Heyne ex Wall. List, No. 1200 (1828), var. albi- FLORA Hiern, Welw. Cat. 88.

Hab. Lower Guinea, Mossamedes.

9. M. CYCLOPHYLLA Hochst. cx Mastcrs, I.e. Hab. Abyssinia, Schimper.

10. M. ROTUNDATA Hochst. cx Mastcrs, I. c. Hab. Abyssinia, Schimper.

E. Bracts linear, subulate. Loculi 2-oo-seeded.

Leaves oval, obtuse.

11. M. ABYSsiNicA A. Rich. Fl. Abyss, i. 76, t. 18.

Hab. Nile Land; Somaliland. Occurs in the Cape Verde Islands, also in Scinde.

F. Bracts linear, subulate. Loculi 2- oo-seeded.

* Leaves lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate.

12. M. soMALENsia Bak. fil.

Hab. Somaliland. Sheikhusin, Dr. Donaldson Smith.

* * Leaves oblong elliptical ?

13. M. GRiQUENSis Bolus, var. /? virescens K. Schum. in Bot. Verb. Brand. (1888), 230.

Hab. Hereroland, Liuleritz.

I have not had an opportunity of dissectmg this plant; the position therefore is doubtful.

M. griquensis Bolus is apparently identical with M. Rehmanni

G. Bracts linear. Loculi 1-seeded. Leaves oblong, orbicular or orbicular-ovate.

14. M. Engleriana K. Schum. in Engler, Hochgebirgsflora, 303. Hab. Somaliland. Ahlgebirge, Hildebrandt, No. 834 c.

6 TWO NEW FORMS OF HIERACIUM.

Kelleronia Gillettii, sp. n. Fruticosa ramosa, ramulis her- baceis vel suffratesceutibus strigoso-pubescentibus, foliis petiolatis paripinnatis s^epissime 4-jngis, foliolis oblique oblongis vel ovato- oblongis vel subellipticis brevissime petiolatis pr^cipue subtus strigoso-piibescentibas, apice rotundatis vel brevissime miicrouatis, stipulis anguste lanceolatis, floribus axillaribiis solitariis, pedimculis quam foliis s^epissime brevioribus, alabastris acuminatis, sepalis lanceolatis acuminatissimis, basi saccatis qiiam petalis subduplo brevioribus, petalis "cocciueis" obovatis, carpellis 5 reticulatis sparse pilosis.

Hab. Somaliland. Somali name, "Obach." " Straggling bush among rocks, below quite woody." In flower January, 1897, MUs Gillett. AVagga Mountains, ]\Irs. E. Lort Phillips.

A straggling bush, woody below ; branchlets herbaceous or suffrutescent, striate, pubescent. Leaves paripinnate, generally about four pairs of leaflets. Leaflets obliquely oblong or ovate- oblong, apex subacute, very shortly petiolate, strigosely hairy, especially below, about | in. long and 4-5 lines (rarely reaching 7 lines) broad. Stipules lanceolate. Flowers axillary, solitary, peduncles f-f in. long. Buds very acuminate, externally hairy. Sepals lanceolate, very acuminate, hairy on the back, margin scarious, about half as long as the petals. Petals "scarlet," about 1^ in. long. Stamens shorter than the style. Ovary densely hairy. Style about f in. long. Carpels 5, adhering to central axis, other- wise free, reticulate, sparsely pilose, about ^ in. long.

Closely allied to Kelleronia splendens Schinz, in Bull. Herb. Boissier, 1895, 400, t. 9. This plant has lemon-yellow flowers, w^iile in the present species they are scarlet. The internodes in K. Gillettii are much longer [i. e. l|-2^ in. long), the branchlets thinner, and the leaflets not quite so pointed and more inclined to be obliquely oblong-ovate than simply ovate, but in shape they are subject to considerable variation.

TWO NEW FOEMS OF HIERACIUM. By the Eev. Augustin Ley.

HiERACiuM HYPocHCERoiDEs Gibs. var. Cyathis, nov. var. Original root-leaves obovate, retuse at tip, the base gradually narrowed into petiole, strongly fringed with white hairs which also cover the under surface. Inner leaves much produced, blade 4-5 in. long, oval, elliptic or narrowly elliptic, acute, often toothed. Stem stout, stiff, 1 ft. to 18 in. high, with scattered lax, white hairs, often branched ; peduncles at the top stiffly spreading. Phyllaries with recurved tips in bud ; bud short, forming from the first an open cup, and showing the tips of the immature ligules within the cup. Laaves green or slightly marbled ; styles pure yellow.

In addition to the remarkably different shape of the leaves, the shorter bud, which is open from the earliest stages, like a miniature cup (hence the varietal name), and the phyllaries with tips recurved

TWO NEW FORMS OF HIERACIUM. 7

in bud, distinguish tins plant from both typical H. hypochceroides and the var. sax ) rum. In both the latter the phyllaries are porrect in bud. The outer phyllaries of the present plant are also much laxer in early bad, and the stem has more numerous white hairs than in the type or in var. saxormn. The tint of the leaves is of a lighter green than in the type, but agrees with that of the var. saxurum.

Plentiful on a range of limestone rocks near Merthyr Tydfil, S. Breconshire, in company with the variety of H. pollijiarium P. J. Hanb. described below. Fu'st noticed in 1894 ; gathered also in subsequent years, and watched in cultivation.

Though hitherto detected only at a single station, this plant seems remarkable enough to deserve recognition and description under a varietal name. I have Mr. Hanbury's consent to placing it under H. hjpochmroides Gibs.

HiERAciuM poLLiNARiuM F. J. Haub. var. PLA.TYPHYLLUM, nov. var. Eadical leaves large, broadly ovate, often with triangular teeth near the base; the teeth and the point of the leaf terminating in an apiculus, thick and firm in texture when fresh, the under surface with minute stellate down. Stem with 1-2 leaves, 9 in. -2ft. in height, with long erect branches ; the branches, and especially the very floccose peduncles, forming a very acute angle with the stem ; phyllaries with strongly marked floccose margins, incurved at tip in bud, as in H. miironim L. pt. ; ligules mostly but not always stylose, styles dark olive-green.

Differs from type H. polUnariuni F. J. Hanb. in the phyllaries being more parallel-sided, with more black-based hairs and floccum ; in the more floccose and less setose, longer, straighter peduncles, which form a very acute angle with each other and with the stem ; in the leaves not being retuse at tip, nor narrowed to the base, but broad-based, with coarse, somewhat sagittate teeth.

Mountain rocks, both of sandstone and Umestone ; frequent in parts of South Wales, especially in Breconshire.

Localities : Herefordshire : Red Daren, Hatterel range. Black Mountains. Monmouthshire : Taren-r'-Esgob, Llanthony Valley, Black Mountains. Breconshire : frequent on the cliffs of the Black Mountains, near the above stations in Herefordshire and Mon- mouthshire. Frequent on the Brecon Beacon range ; Craig Gled- siau and Craig Du (all the above stations on sandstone) ; Craig Cille, near Crickhowel ; Dyffryn Crawnon ; Dan-y-graig and other spots near Merthyr Tydfil (all these on limestone). Probably found on the more western portions of this range in Carmarthenshire.

First observed at the Herefordshire station in 1892, and at several of its Breconshire stations in 1893. I have watched it under cultivation since 1893, in the light loam of a South Hereford- shire garden. Here it retains all its characteristics, but becomes more robust, the crowns of the root increase in size, and throw up a greater number of stems. It increases rapidly by seed in the garden. The stylose ligules occur in about five out of six specimens, whether in a cultivated or wild state, but this character does not appear to be accompanied by any other variation in the plant.

ON PRIMARY CHARACTERS IN CERASTIUM. By Frederic N. Williams, F.L.S.

In many important floras Cerastium trigynuin Vill. is transferred to the genus Stellaria on account of the ovary bearing three styles, and when ripe dehiscing by six teeth. The presence of three styles instead of five is therefore in this case regarded as a generic cha- racter. An examination of specimens of many species shows, however, that this is an inconstant character, and is by no means to be relied on for separating Cerastium from Stellaria. The form of the ripe capsule as well as the direction and curvature of the teeth after dehiscence should together be taken as the cardinal character of Cerastium. as distinct from Stellaria: the number of the styles and capsular teeth should not in this connection be taken into account.

Species of Cerastium may generally be distinguished from those of Stellaria and Arenaria by habit, although not always satisfactorily. At the same time, if the fruit-characters of a typical Cerastium be kept in view, there ought to be no difficulty in defining the genus and in circumscribing the species. As defined and aptly named by Linn^us it is characteristic enough. The form of the ripe capsule in three common species affords a ready illustration.

In Cerastium, triviale the capsule lengthens considerably after the formation of seeds ; it is then somewhat cylindrical in form, often more than twice as long as the calyx ; in the process it curves like a horn, and dehisces by ten short straight teeth revolute at the margins. The ovary before fertilization of the ovules is ovate- globose, and scarcely longer than the calyx.

In Stellaria Holostea the ripe capsule is globose, about equal to the calyx in length, and after rupture the six teeth formed by dehiscence extend half down the capsule or beyond.

In Arenaria serpi/llifolia the ripe capsule is ventricose-ovoid, equalhng or slightly exceeding the calyx, and dehisces by six plane straight teeth not revolute at the margins ; neither is the capsule so deeply cleft as in a Stellaria. In many species of Cerastium the capsule is straight, but the teeth are revolute at the margins as in C, nemorale Bieb., or else at the apex (circinate-convolute) as in C. tomentosum L.

Whether the capsular teeth are opposite the sepals or alternate with them is a more important character than the fact of the gynoecium being isomerous or meiomerous in relation to the seg- ments of the calyx. There is therefore greater reason for keeping up the genus Malachium than for referring Cerastium trigynum to Stellaria, where it was first placed by Linnaeus. The same character satisfactorily serves to distinguish Spergula from Spergularia. In Spergula arrensis L. the five valves of the capsule are opposite the sepals, and before dehiscence the five styles are alternate with the sepals. ^ In Spergularia rupicola Lebel there are only three styles, but in Spergularia grandis Camb. the five styles are opposite the sepals, and the five valves of the capsule are alternate with the sepals.

ON PrjMARY CHARACTERS IN CERASTIUM. 9

The most characteristically defined group in Cerastium includes those species in which the teeth of the capsule after dehiscence are finally circinate-convolute. In none of the allied genera does this peculiarity in the capsular teeth occur. But it is to be noted that in all the species referable to this group the ripening capsule, while increasing in length, does not become curved, except in C. Arme- niacum, where it is considerably curved, and more than half exserted from the calyx. If, without regard to the number of teeth (whether six or ten), those species in which the teeth are finally circinate- convolute are included in the group defined by Seringe as the section Strephodon, there only remain in the group defined by Bartling as the section Dichodon two well-known species, C. tri- gynuin and C. anomalum. To these may, however, be added C. m.auritanicum Pomel, and C. melanandrum Maxim.

Examination of the capsules of other species shows also that the number of styles in specimens is an inconstant character. A well-defined American species, C. Texanum, has been described by Dr. N. L. Britton in which the styles vary 3-5, but the capsular teeth are invariably circinate-convolute. The same obtains in C. indiciuii W. & Arn. In Wight's specimens I have noticed several ovaries with only three styles instead of five. Mr. Henry Trimeu, in his Flora of Ceylon, says of the specimens which he examined, " Styles 5, not 3,'' as given in the Fl. of Brituh Lidia." This is certainly not stated in FL of British India, i. p. 227. Again, in a Siberian species, C. obtusifolium Kar. & Kir., included in the section Strephodon,\ I find on the examination of authentic specimens that there are only three styles, and that the six capsular teeth are subrevolute at the margin, and not circinate-convolute at the tip, but straight and obtuse : so that but for the form of the petals (should the character be sufficiently distinctive) the species might as well be reduced to a variety of C. trigijnum.

It may further be pointed out that in C, trigynum and allied species the capsule is never curved, which serves with other charac- ters taken into consideration to separate them from the large group of which G. glovieratum and C. arvense are well-known examples ; a group in which the character of the 10-dentate capsule is normal and less inconstant.

In the matter of habit and aspect Stellaria includes slender, diffuse, glabrous herbs, while the species of Cerastium are pubescent, though C. perfoliatum L. is a conspicuous exception, and the per- ennial forms are often tufted. On the other hand, two species of jfirenaria with long cylindrical capsules, viz. A. Guicciardii Heldr. and A. purpnrascens Eamond, may be regarded as connecting links with the normally 3-styled species of Cerastium. In Cerastium the capsule may be said to be always more or less elongated, while in Stellaria and Arenaria it is characteristically ovoid or oblong.

An important character noted by Fenzl| is that the seeds of some species are angular (in the dried state), from shrinking of the

* There is probably also au error in transposition of figures here, t Ledeb. Fl. Rossica, i. 398. J Ledeb. Fl. Rossica, i. 415.

10 THE FLOKA OF WALES.

testa, owing to its not being closely adherent to the albumen, though somewhat inflated in fresh seeds. This character dis- tinguishes C. JatifoUuni from such a species as C. arvense, in which the nucleus is closely invested by the testa which is uniformly adherent to the albumen. Such seeds are not angular in the dried state. This character, however, is sometimes difficult to make out in small seeds, in which the dorsal curvature is less marked.

The species of Cerastium may be associated into primary groups on the basis of characters which have been relied on previously for the definition of sections, though of different grades in grouping. The subgenera of Cerastium are defined in accordance with the views expressed in these short notes.

Subgenus I. Dichodon. Petala profunde emarginata. Styli 3. Capsula recta, dentibus 6 erectis vel patulis margine subrevolutis dehiscens. Herb^ annuae vel perennes.

Subgenus II. Strephodon. Petala incisa vel emarginata. Styli 3 vel 5 (interdum 4). Capsula recta vel curvata, dentibus 6 vel 10 apice circiuato-convolutis, margine non revolutis, dehiscens. Herbte annu» vel perennes, dichotome ramosas, multiflorse, rarius simplices, corymboso- vel subumbellatim cymosae.

Subgenus III. Orthodox. Petala incisa, emarginata, vel laci- niata. Styli 5. Capsula recta (insuper interdum apice leviter curvula) vel plus minus e basi curvata, plerumque calyce longior, rarissime brevior ; dentibus 10 erectis vel patulo-rectis, dorso planis vel margine revolutis, dehiscens. Herbse annuae vel baud saepius perennes, habitu et florum dispositione variae.

THE FLORA OF WALES.

[In view of the increasing interest which is now being manifested in the botany of the Principality, it may be well to render accessible to British botanists the summary which was issued in August, 1896, as an Appendix (B) to the Report of the Royal Commission on Land in Wales and Monmouthshire.

It may be well to say that the Appendix was sent in proof by the Secretary of the Commission, Mr. D. Lleufer Thomas, to the Editor of this Journal, with a request that he would make such additions as were desirable. This he did at once, although at some inconvenience, as the matter was said to be urgent ; and his very considerable additions were embodied in the published sketch. No acknowledgment whatever, however, is made of this help an omission all the more remarkable inasmuch as Mr. Llenfer Thomas stated in one of Jiis letters that he himself was "not very conversant in the literature of botany." That this is no exaggerated expression of modesty on Mr. Thomas's part is manifest from the list of plants (from Evans's A^or^/i Wales) "almost exclusively confined" to the Principality, given on p. 30, which includes such species as Jasione mofitana, Nartliecium, Osmimda, Scilla verna, Campanula latifoliat

THE FLORA OF WALES. 11

Iberis midicaulis (there is no attempt to give modern synonymy), "the singular dortmanna lobelia,'" and " the surprising vegetable automaton the rtqjpia inaritima." Even the generic names here have no capitals, but this is compensated for on p. 13 of the Appendix, where we find a "list of rare plants at present found in Wales" supplied by the Rev. 0. M. Fielden, in which both generic and trivial names begin with a capital letter. This contains such names as ''Cerastium Alpmiiim" and ^' Aster Linocyris,'' fxnd indicates Seiiecio campestris among the plants "only found in Wales in the British Isles"! Ed. Journ. Bot.]

The first professedly botanical tour in Wales was undertaken in the summer of 1639 by Thomas Johnson (ob. 1644), of Selby, Yorkshire. He was accompanied by Mr. Paul Sone and by Mr. Edward Morgan, who knew the Welsh language and was also a herbalist. Their tour was confined to North Wales, which they entered by way of Chester, and then journeyed by Flint, Holywell, and Penmaenmawr to Carnarvon, whence they ascended Snowdon. After visiting Anglesey they returned by way of Harlech, Barmouth, Machynlleth, and Montgomery, being entertained at the last- mentioned place by the first Lord Herbert of Cherbury. An account of this tour is given in the second part of Johnson's Mercurlus Botaiiicus, which bore the title of " Mercurii Botanici Pars altera, sive Plantarum gratia suscepti Itineris in Cambriam seu Walliam Descriptio," Lond., 1641, 8vo, pp. 37.

This work was dedicated to Mr. Thomas Glyn, of Glynllifon, Carnarvonshire, himself a botanist, who is credited with having discovered the plant known as Diotis maritima on the Welsh coast, near his residence. This work together with other minor pro- ductions of Johnson were collected and edited by T. S. Ralph in 1847, under the title of Opiiscula Omnia Botanica lliomce Johnso7iii (London, 4to).

In 1633 Johnson had brought out a new edition, considerably enlarged and extending to about 1650 pages, of Gerard's Herbal (which had been first issued in 1597), and a reprint of the new edition was also issued only three years later, in 1636.

The earliest book on botany restricted to the plants of Great Britain was WilUam How's Phytologia Britamiica, published anonymously in 1650. Several of the plants catalogued are described as found in Wales.

In the autumn of 1658 John Ray took a botanical journey, which he performed alone (and which was the first of his Itineraries) through the midland counties of England and the northern part of Wales. He left Chester (whither he had travelled from Cambridge) on August 25, and then followed almost exactly the same route as Johnson, nearly twenty years earlier. He quitted Welsh territory on the 7th of September, when he "rode through Welshpool to Shrewsbury."

In May and June, 1662, Ray, accompanied by his friend Wil- lughby, made his third and most extensive tour (his second tour having been to Scotland and the North of England). The route followed was through the midland counties to Chester, as before,

12 THE FLORA OF WALES.

thence into North Wales, and, after maldng a circuit of the North Wales coast (visiting Anglesey and Bardsey), they followed the coast southwards as far as St. David's (ascending Plynlimmon on the way), and from St. David's to Gloucester, and thence through the south-western counties of Englsnd. In addition to the botanical notes, this third Itinerary gives much information concerning the Birds and Fishes, especially on the sea- coast of Pembrokeshire. These Itineraries have been published for the Ray Society under the title, Mojwrials of John Bay, edited by Edwin Lankester, London, 1846, 8vo (see the Welsh portions at pp. 127-130, and 106-178). Some of the results of these tours, so far as Wales is concerned, are also embodied in Ray's Fasciculus Stirpiiim Britan- nicarum, "posteditum plantarum Angliae Catalogum observatarum " (Lond., 1688, pp. 27, 12mo), which, inter alia, describes several rare mountainous or alpine plants from Wales ; Ray's best known work, however, is his Synopsis Methodica Stirpiiun Britannic arum (Lond., 1690, pp. 317, 8vo), which was a remodelled and improved edition of his " Catalogus Plantarum Angh^e " (Cambridge, 1670, pp. 103, 12mo), both of which also bear traces of his Welsh investi- gations. A second edition of the Synopsis was issued in 1696, and among those whose assistance is acknowledged by the author we find Edward Llwyd (1660-1709), the great Welsh archaologist and naturalist. Llwyd travelled much in Wales and elsewhere for the purpose of collecting specimens in natural history for the Ash- molean Museum, being also, in 1693, employed by Dr. Gibson to collect materials in Wales for a new edition of Camden's Britannia, which was published in 1695, and for which he contributed a list of Welsh plants.* Lhuyd also contributed materials for a large number of books, brought out by other writers, on questions of natural history (see Diet, of National Biography, s. v. Llwyd). The third edition of Ray's Synopsis was brought out in 1724 by Dr. Dillenius, who two years later, in 1726, undertook a botanical tour in the company of Samuel Brew^er, who at all events went on to North Wales, including Anglesey. Brewer remained in Bangor for more than a twelvemonth, botanizing with the Rev. W. Green and W. Jones, and sending dried plants to Dillenius, particularly mosses, thus clearing up many doubtful points. A species of rock rose, a native of North Wales, discovered by him, bears the name of Heli- anthemiim Breweri. A transcript by Solander of his MS. "Botanical Journey through Wales" is preserved in the Botanical Department of the British Museum.

Among others who also botanized in Wales, or deserve to be classed as Welsh botanists at this early period, we may mention the following :

William Salesbury, who was born early in the 16th century, and is best known as the translator of the New Testament into Welsh, has been shown, from internal evidence, to be the author of a Welsh work on botany, which, however, exists only in a transcript made

* In Gougb's edition of Camden's Britannia (1789) there is appended to the history of each county a list of rare plants found within its area, the part dealing with Wales being at pp. 465-598 of vol. ii.

THE FLORA OF WALES. 13

by one Evan Thomas (or Thomas Evans) in 1763. This transcript was in 1873 in the possession of the late Eev. John Peter (loan Pedr), of Bala (1838-77), who was himself an enthusiastic botanist, and who contributed to the Traethodydd for 1873 (vol. xxvii., pp. 156-181) an interesting article entitled " William Salesbury fel Llysieuwr" (i.e.W. S. as a botanist), dealing with the MS. in question, and giving several extracts therefrom. I have been unable to ascertain the present whereabouts of this transcript.

The chief authorities cited by Salesbury are Dr. Turner (1520- 1568), the author of Historia de Natiiris Herharum, and Leonard Fuchs (1501-1566), a Bavarian writer; but he also quotes the authority of a learned Welsh contemporary of his Sir Thomas ab William, the lexicographer and physician of Trefriw, who is said to liave written "a book of medical directions and receipts" (see William's Eminent Welshmen, p. 537), or, according to another, a book on herbs and their medicinal properties