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HANDBOOK

OF NATURE-STUDY

ANNA BOTSFORD COMSTOCK

SEPTEMBER I, 1854- AUGUST 24, 1930

HANDBOOK

OF

NATURE -STUDY

B r

ANNA BOTSFORD COMSTOCK, B.S., L.H.D.

LATE PROFESSOR OF NATURE-STUDY IN CORNELL UNIVERSITY

TWENTY-FOURTH EDITION

COMSTOCK PUBLISHING ASSOCIATES

A DIVISION OF CORNELL UNIVERSITY PRESS ITHACA, NEW YORK

COPYRIGHT, 1911, BY ANNA BOTSFORD COMSTOCK

COPYRIGHT, 1939, BY COMSTOCK PUBLISHING COMPANY, INC.

All rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, must not be reproduced in any form without permission in writing from the publisher, except by a reviewer who wishes to quote brief passages in a review of the book

24th Edition

Third printing, December, 1944

Fourth printing, March, 1945

Fifth printing, January, 1947

Sixth printing, November, 1947

Seventh printing, March, 1948

Eighth printing, December, 1948

Ninth printing, September, 1950

Tenth printing, September, 1951

Eleventh printing, February, 1952

Twelfth printing, February, 1953

Thirteenth printing, December, 1953

Fourteenth printing, July, 1955

Fifteenth printing, January, 1957

Sixteenth printing, December, 1957

PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA BY THE VAIL-BALLOU PRESS, INC., BINCHAMTON, N. Y.

TO LIBERTY HYDE BAILEY

UNDER WHOSE WISE, STAUNCH, AND INSPIRING LEADERSHIP

THE NATURE-STUDY WORK AT CORNELL UNIVERSITY

HAS BEEN ACCOMPLISHED

AND TO MY CO-WORKER

JOHN WALTON SPENCER

WHOSE COURAGE, RESOURCEFULNESS, AND UNTIRING ZEAL WERE POTENT FACTORS IN THE SUCCESS OF THE CAUSE

THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED

MO. PUBLIC LIBRARY

0 0001 0006140 5

PUBLISHER'S FOREWORD

The publication of the twenty-fourth edition of the Handbook of Nature-Study seemed an appropriate time to make cer- tain revisions which had become press- ingly necessary, to replace and improve the illustrations, and to incorporate sug- gestions which had been received from many interested friends. Accordingly, the entire text has been carefully scrutinized, and has been corrected or elaborated in the light of the most recent knowledge. Where the earlier treatment seemed in- adequate new material has been added, and Part IV in particular has been much expanded. New subjects, such as soil con- servation, have been introduced. We think it is safe to say that the Handbook has been well modernized.

But by far the greater part of Mrs. ComstocFs work proved to be as accurate and timely in 1939 as in 1911, a striking tribute to the scientific genius of the author. In such cases the language of the earlier text has been preserved, for no improvement could be made on the charming style that has won friends in the tens of thousands. And a careful attempt has been made throughout to preserve the method of treatment adopted by Mrs. Comstock. Perhaps some justification of this policy is needed. Some readers of the Handbook have suggested that the new edition be oriented away from the nature- study approach, and be made instead to serve as an introduction to the natural sciences. For the convenience of readers who wish preparation for the academic studies, some scientific classifications and terminology have been introduced. But the nature-study approach has been pre- served. The kernel of that method of treatment is the study of the organism in its environment, its relation to the world about it, and the features which enable it to function in its surroundings. This study

takes the individual organism, rather than an abstract phylum or genus, as the point of departure. Mrs. Comstock believed that the student found in such a study a fresh, spontaneous interest which was lacking in formal textbook science, and the phenomenal success of her work seems to prove that she was right. Moreover, nature-study as Mrs. Comstock conceived it was an aesthetic experience as well as a discipline. It was an opening of the eyes to the individuality, the ingenuity, the personality of each of the unnoticed life- forms about us. It meant a broadening of intellectual outlook, an expansion of sympathy, a fuller life. Much of this Mrs. Comstock succeeded in conveying into her work; and perhaps it is this inform- ing spirit that is the chief virtue of the book.

But it should not be thought that nature-study is not a science. The promis- ing science of ecology is merely formalized nature-study; indeed it might be said that nature-study is natural science from an ecological rather than an anatomical point of view. The truth is that nature-study is a science, and is more than a science; it is not merely a study of life, but an experi- ence of life. One realizes, as he reads these pages, that with Mrs. Comstock it even contributed to a philosophy of life.

Only the generous efforts of many specialists made possible the thorough- going revision of the book. Dr. Marjorie Ruth Ross assumed in large part the re- sponsibility for editorial supervision and co-ordination, and performed most of the labor of revision and replacement of il- lustrations. Professor A. H. Wright and Mrs. Wright made valuable suggestions and criticisms of the book in general, pro- vided hitherto unpublished photographs for the sections on reptiles and amphibi- ans, and read proof on those sections.

V1I1

Professor Glenn W. Herrick, Professor J. G. Needhanx and Dr. Grace H. Gris- wold made suggestions for the revision of the material on insects, and supplied illustrations for that section. Professor E. F. Phillips contributed criticism for the lesson on bees. Professor A. A. Allen kindly made suggestions and provided il- lustrations for the material on birds. Pro- fessor B. P. Young gave assistance in the treatment of aquatic life; Dr. W. J. Koster made suggestions for improving the sec- tion on fish; and Dr. Emmeline Moore selected photographs of fish, and on be- half of the New York State Department of Conservation gave permission to use them.

Thanks are due to Professor W. J. Hamilton, Jr., for criticism of the section on mammals and for supplying several photographs; to Professor E. S. Harrison for aid in revising the lesson on cattle and supplying illustrations. Mrs. C. N. Stark made helpful suggestions for the revision of the lesson on bacteria. Miss Ethel Belk suggested many revisions in the part on plants. Professor W. C. Muenscher made useful criticisms of the section on weeds, and supplied illustrations. Professor C. H. Guise revised the portion dealing with the chestnut tree and Professor Ralph W. Curtis gave valuable assistance in the re- vision of the whole section on trees, and furnished pictures. Professor Joseph Os- kamp suggested several improvements in

PUBLISHER'S FOREWORD

the text on the apple tree. Mr. William Marcus Ingram, Jr. prepared the captions for the illustrations of shells.

Professor H. Ries made extensive re- visions and additions in the lessons relat- ing to geology. Professor H. O. Buckman revised the lesson on soil. Professor A. F. Gustafson revised the lesson on the brook, and added material on soil conser- vation. Professor S. L. Boothroyd not only revised the old text on the sky, but he also provided new material and supplied maps and photographs to illustrate it. Dr. H. O. Geren made valuable suggestions for the revision of the text on weather. Miss Theodosia Hadley supplied material for the new bibliography; Dr. Eva L. Gordon revised the bibliography, made numerous suggestions for revision of other parts of the text, and provided some of the illustra- tions.

Dr. F. D. Wormuth acted as literary editor of the manuscript. Dr. John M. Raines composed many of the captions for the new illustrations, and, with Mrs. Raines, read proof of the entire book.

Many teachers throughout the country offered constructive criticisms; an attempt has been made to put them into effect. To all of these persons the publishers wish to express most cordial and sincere thanks. THE PUBLISHERS ITHACA, NEW YORK

January i, 1939

PREFACE

The Cornell University Nature-Study propaganda was essentially an agricultural movement in its inception and its aims; it was inaugurated as a direct aid to better methods of agriculture in New York State. During the years of agricultural de- pression 1891-1893, the Charities of New York City found it necessary to help many people who had come from the rural dis- tricts — a condition hitherto unknown. The philanthropists managing the Associ- ation for Improving the Condition of the Poor asked, "What is the matter with the land of New York State that it can- not support its own population? " A con- ference was called to consider the situa- tion to which many people from different parts of the State were invited; among them was the author of this book, who little realized that in attending that meet- ing the whole trend of her activities would be thereby changed. Mr. George T. Powell, who had been a most efficient Di- rector of Farmers' Institutes of New York State, was invited to the conference as an expert to explain conditions and give ad- vice as to remedies. The situation seemed so serious that a Committee for the Pro- motion of Agriculture in New York State was appointed. Of this committee the Honorable Abram S. Hewitt was Chair- man, Mr. R. Fulton Cutting, Treasurer, Mr. Wm. H. Tolman, Secretary. The other members were Walter L. Suydam, Wm. E. Dodge, Jacob H. Schiff, George T. Powell, G. Howard Davidson, Howard Townsend, Professor I. P. Roberts, C. McNamee, Mrs. J. R. Lowell, and Mrs. A. B. Comstock. Mr. George T. Powell was made Director of the Department of Agricultural Education.

At the first meeting of this committee Mr. Powell made a strong plea for inter- esting the children of the country in farming as a remedial measure, and main-

tained that the first step to\vard agricul- ture was nature-study. It had been Mr. Powell's custom to give simple agricul- tural and nature-study instruction to the school children of every town where he was conducting a farmers' institute, and his opinion was, therefore, based upon experience. The committee desired to see for itself the value of this idea, and experi- mental work was suggested, using the schools of Westchester County as a labo- ratory. Mr. R. Fulton Cutting generously furnished the funds for this experiment, and work was done that year in the West- Chester schools which satisfied the com- mittee of the soundness of the project.

The committee naturally concluded that such a fundamental movement must be a public rather than a private enterprise; and Mr. Frederick Nixon, then Chairman of the Ways and Means Committee of the Assembly, was invited to meet with the committee at Mr. Hewitt's home. Mr. Nixon had been from the beginning of his public career deeply interested in im- proving the farming conditions of the State. In 1894, it was through his influ- ence and the support given him by the Chautauqua Horticultural Society under the leadership of Mr. John W. Spencer, that an appropriation had been given to Cornell University for promoting the horticultural interests of the western counties of the State. In addition to other work done through this appropriation, horticultural schools were conducted un- der the direction of Professor L. H. Bailey with the aid of other Cornell instructors and especially of Mr. E. G. Lodeman; these schools had proved to be most use- ful and were well attended. Therefore, Mr. Nixon was open-minded toward an educational movement. He listened to the plan of the committee and after due con- sideration declared that if this new meas-

lire would surely help the farmers of the State, the money would be forthcoming. The committee unanimously decided that if an appropriation were made for this purpose it should be given to the Cornell College of Agriculture; and that year eight thousand dollars were added to the Cor- nell University Fund, for Extension Teaching and inaugurating this work. The work was begun under Professor I. P. Roberts; after one year Professor Roberts placed it under the supervision of Profes- sor L. H. Bailey, who for the fifteen years since has been the inspiring leader of the movement as well as the official head.

In 1896, Mr. John W. Spencer, a fruit grower in Chautauqua County, became identified with the enterprise; he had lived in rural communities and he knew their needs. He it was who first saw clearly that the first step in the great work was to help the teacher through simply written leaflets; and later he originated the great plan of organizing the children in the schools of the State into Junior Nat- uralists Clubs, which developed a remark- able phase of the movement. The mem- bers of these clubs paid their dues by writing letters about their nature observa- tions to Mr. Spencer, who speedily be- came their beloved "Uncle John"; a button and charter were given for con- tinued and earnest work. Some years, 30,000 children were thus brought into direct communication with Cornell Uni- versity through Mr. Spencer. A monthly leaflet for Junior Naturalists followed; and it was to help in this enterprise that Miss Alice G. McCloskey, the able Editor of the present Rural School Leaflet, was brought into the work. Later, Mr. Spencer organized the children's garden move- ment by forming the children of the State into junior gardeners; at one time he had 25,000 school pupils working in gardens and reporting to him.

In 1899, Mrs. Maw Rogers Miller, who had proven a most efficient teacher when representing Cornell nature-study in the State Teachers* Institutes, planned and started the Home Nature-Study Course Leaflets for the purpose of helping the

PREFACE

teachers by correspondence, a work which fell to the author in 1903 when Mrs. Miller was called to other fields.

For the many years during which New York State has intrusted this important work to Cornell University, the teaching of nature-study has gone steadily on in the University, in teachers' institutes, in State summer schools, through various publica- tions and in correspondence courses. Many have assisted in this work, notably Dr. W. C. Thro, Dr. A. A. Allen, and Miss Ada Georgia. The New York Edu- cation Department with Charles R. Skin- ner as Commissioner of Education and Dr. Isaac Stout as the Director of Teach- ers7 Institutes co-operated heartily with the movement from the first. Later with the co-operation of Dr. Andrew Draper, as Commissioner of Education, many of the Cornell leaflets have been written with the special purpose of aiding in carrying out the New York State Syllabus in Nature-Study and Agriculture.

The leaflets upon which this volume is based were published in the Home Na- ture-Study Course during the years 1903- 1911, in limited editions and were soon out of print. It is to make these lessons available to the general public that this volume has been compiled. While the subject matter of the lessons herein given is essentially the same as in the leaflets, the lessons have all been rewritten for the sake of consistency, and many new les- sons have been added to bridge gaps and make a coherent whole.

Because the lessons were written dur- ing a period of so many years, each lesson has been prepared as if it were the only one, and without reference to others. If there is any uniformity of plan in the les- sons, it is due to the inherent qualities of the subjects, and not to a type plan in the mind of the writer; for, in her opinion, each subject should be treated individu- ally in nature-study; and in her long ex- perience as a nature-study teacher she has never been able to give a lesson twice alike on a certain topic or secure exactly the same results twice in succession. It should also be stated that it is not because the

author undervalues physics nature-study that it has been left out of these lessons, but because her own work has been always along biological lines.

The reason why nature-study has not yet accomplished its mission, as thought- core for much of the required work in our public schools, is that the teachers are as a whole untrained in the subject. The children are eager for it, unless it is spoiled in the teaching; and whenever we find a teacher with an understanding of out-of- door life and a love for it, there we find nature-study in the school is an inspira- tion and a joy to pupils and teacher. It is because of the author's sympathy with the untrained teacher and her full com- prehension of her difficulties and help- lessness that this book has been written. These difficulties are chiefly three-fold: The teacher does not know what there is to see in studying a planet or animal; she knows little of the literature that might help her; and because she knows so little of the subject, she has no interest in giving a lesson about it. As a matter of fact, the literature concerning our common ani- mals and plants is so scattered that a teacher would need a large library and al- most unlimited time to prepare lessons for an extended nature-study course.

The writer's special work for fifteen years in Extension teaching has been the helping of the untrained teacher through personal instruction and through leaflets. Many methods were tried and finally there was evolved the method followed in this volume: All the facts available and pertinent concerning each topic have been assembled in the "Teacher's story" to make her acquainted with the subject; this is followed by an outline for observation on the part of the pupils while studying the object. It would seem that with the teacher's story before the eyes of the teacher, and the subject of the lesson be- fore the eyes of the pupils with a number of questions leading them to see the es- sential characteristics of the object, there should result a wider knowledge of nature than is given in this or any other book.

That the lessons are given in a very in-

PREFACE xi

formal manner, and that the style of writ- ing is often colloquial, results from the fact that the leaflets upon which the book is based were written for a correspondence course in which the communications were naturally informal and chatty. That the book is meant for those untrained in sci- ence accounts for the rather loose termi- nology employed; as, for instance, the use of the word seed in the popular sense whether it be a drupe, an akene, or other form of fruit; or the use of the word pod for almost any seed envelope, and many like instances. Also, it is very likely, that in teaching quite incidentally the rudi- ments of the principles of evolution, the results may often seem to be confused with an idea of purpose, which is quite unscientific. But let the critic labor for fifteen years to interest the untrained adult mind in nature's ways, before he casts any stones! And it should be always borne in mind that if the author has not dipped deep in the wells of science, she has used only a child's cup.

For many years requests have been fre- quent from parents who have wished to give their children nature interests during vacations in the country. They have been borne in mind in planning this volume; the lessons are especially fitted for field work, even though schoolroom methods are so often suggested.

The author feels apologetic that the book is so large. However, it does not contain more than any intelligent coun- try child of twelve should know of his environment; things that he should know naturally and without effort, although it might take him half his life-time to learn so much if he should not begin before the age of twenty. That there are incon- sistencies, inaccuracies, and even blunders in the volume is quite inevitable. The only excuse to be offered is that, if through its use, the children of our land learn early to read nature's truths with their own eyes, it will matter little to them what is written in books.

The author wishes to make grateful ac- knowledgment to the following people: To Professor Wilford M. Wilson for his

xii PREFACE

chapter on the weather; to Miss Man- E. Hill for the lessons on mould, bacteria, the minerals, and reading the weather maps; to Miss Catherine Straith for the lessons on the earthworm and the soil; to Miss Ada Georgia for much valuable as- sistance in preparing the original leaflets on which these lessons are based; to Dean L. H. Bailey and to Dr. David S. Jordan for permission to quote their writings; to Mr. John W. Spencer for the use of his story on the movements of the sun; to Dr. Grove Karl Gilbert Dr. A. C. Gill Dr. Benjamin Duggar, Professor S. H. Gage and Dr. J. G. Needham for reading and criticizing parts of the manuscript; to Miss Eliza Tonks for reading the proof; to the Director of the College of Agriculture for the use of the engravings made for the original leaflets; to Miss Martha Van Rensselaer for the use of many pictures from Boys and Girls; to Professor Cyrus

Crosby, and to Messrs. J. T. Lloyd, A. A. Allen and R. Matheson for the use of their personal photographs; to the U. S. Geological Survey and the U. S. Forest Sendee for the use of photographs; to Louis A. Fuertes for drawings of birds; to Houghton Mifflin & Company for the use of the poems of Lowell, Harte and Lar- com, and various extracts from Burroughs and Thoreau; to Small, Maynard & Com- pany and to John Lane & Company for the use of poems of John T. Babb; to Doubleday, Page & Company for the use of pictures of birds and flowers; and to the American Book Company for the use of electrotypes of dragon-flies and astron- omy. Especially thanks are extended to Miss Anna C. Stryke for numerous draw- ings, including most of the initials.

ANNA BOTSFORD COMSTOCK ITHACA, NEW YORK July, 1911

CONTENTS

PART I

THE TEACHING OF NATURE-STUDY

What Nature-Study Is i

What Nature-Study Should Do for

the Child i

Nature-Study as a Help to Health 2 What Nature-Study Should Do for

the Teacher 3

When and Why the Teacher

Should Say " I Do Not Know! " . 3 Nature-Study, the Elixir of Youth 4 Nature-Study as a Help in School

Discipline 4

Relation of Nature-Study to Sci- ence 5

Nature-Study Not for Drill ... 6 The Child Not Interested in Na- ture-Study 6

When to Give the Lesson .... 6

Length of the Lesson 6

The Nature-Study Lesson Always

New 7

Nature-Study and Object Lessons . 7 Nature-Study in the Schoolroom . 8 Nature-Study and Museum Speci- mens 8

Lens, Microscope and Field Glass as Helps 9

Uses of Pictures, Charts, and Black- board Drawings 10

Uses of Scientific Names .... 10 The Stow as a Supplement to the

Nature-Study Lesson 11

The Nature-Study Attitude toward

Life and Death 12

Should the Nature-Study Teacher Teach How to Destroy Life? . . 13

The Field Notebook / 13

The Field Excursion 15

Pets as Nature-Study Subjects . . 15 Correlation of Nature-Study with

Language Work 16

Correlation of Nature-Study and

Drawing 17

Correlation of Nature-Study with

Geography 18

Correlation of Nature-Study with

History 18

Correlation of Nature-Study with

Arithmetic 19

Gardening and Nature-Study ... 20 Nature-Study and Agriculture . . 21

Nature-Study Clubs 22

How to Use This Book 23

PART II

ANIMALS

BIRDS 27

Beginning Bird Study in the Pri- mary Grades 28

Feathers as Clothing 29

Feathers as Ornament 31

How Birds Fly 33

Migration of Birds 35

Eyes and Ears of Birds 38

Form and Use of Beaks .... 39

Feet of Birds

Songs of Birds ,

Attracting Birds

Value of Birds

Study of Birds' Nests in Winter

Chicken Ways

Pigeons

Canary and the Goldfinch . . Robin

40 42

43

45 46

47 53 57

XIV

CONTENTS

Bluebird

\\Tiite-brcasted Nuthatch . . .

Chickadee

Downy Woodpecker

Sapsucker

Redheaded Woodpecker . . . Flicker or Yellow-hammer . . .

Meadowlark

English Sparrow

Chipping Sparrow

Song Sparrow ........

Mockingbird

Catbird

Belted Kingfisher

Screech Owl

Hawks

Birds of Prey and Scavengers . . Swallows and the Chimney Swift

Hummingbird

Red-winged Blackbird ....

Baltimore Oriole

Crow

Cardinal Grosbeak

Geese

Wild Geese

Game Birds

Turkey

Birds of Marsh and Shore . . .

FISHES

Goldfish . . . Bullhead . . . Common Sucker Shiner .... Brook Trout . . Stickleback . . Sunfish .... Johnny Darter .

AMPHIBIANS

Tailless Amphibians

Common Toad

Tadpole Aquarium

Spring Peeper or Pickering's

Hyla

Frog

Tailed Amphibians

Newt or Eft

REPTILES

Garter or Garden Snake .... Milk Snake or Spotted Adder . . Water Snake

62 65

68

74 76

77

86 89 91

95

97 100

104 106 109

"5

117

120 124

127 130

*33 136

138 142

144 144 148 152 154 156

*59

162

166

170 170 170

177 180 187 187

193 194 197 198

Other Snakes 200

Turtles 204

Lizards 210

MAMMALS 214

Cotton-tail Rabbit 215

Muskrat 219

House Mouse 224

Woodchuck 229

Red Squirrel or Chickaree ... 233

Furry 237

Chipmunk 239

Little Brown Bat 241

Skunk 245

Raccoon 247

Wolf 250

Fox 251

Dogs 254

Cat 260

Goat 266

Sheep 270

Horse 274

Cattle 280

Pig 286

Animals of Zoos and Parks . . . 290

INSECTS 294

Life History and Structure of In- sects 294

INSECTS OF THE FIELDS AND WOODS 301

Black Swallowtail Butterfly . . 301

Monarch Butterfly 305

Isabella Tiger Moth or Woolly

Bear 310

Cecropia 313

Promethea 317

Cynthia 319

Hummingbird or Sphinx Moths 320

Codling Moth 325

Leaf-miners 329

Leaf-rollers 332

Gall Dwellers 335

Grasshopper 338

Katydid 343

Black Cricket 344

Snowy Tree Cricket 348

Cockroach 350

Aphids or Plant Lice 351

Ant Lion 354

Mother Lacewing and the Aphis

Lion 356

CONTENTS

Housefly 358

Colorado Potato Beetle , . . . 362

Ladybird 364

Firefly 367

Ways of the Ant 369

How to Make a Lubbock Ant- nest 373

The Ant-nest and What May Be

Seen within It 374

Mud-dauber 378

Yellow Jacket 380

Leaf-cutter Bee 384

Little Carpenter Bee 386

Bumblebee 389

Honeybee 391

Honeycomb . . . 395

Industries of the Hive and the

Observation Hive 396

INSECTS OF THE BROOK AND POND . 400 How to Make an Aquarium for

Insects 400

Dragonflies and Damsel Flies . . 401

Other Aquatic Insects 402

Caddis Worms and the Caddis

Flies

Mosquito

XV

408 411

OTHER

INVERTEBRATE ANIMALS

THAN INSECTS 416

Garden Snail 416

Shells of Florida and the East

Coast 418

Earthworm 422

Crayfish 425

Seashore Creatures 430

Daddy Longlegs or Grandfather

Greybeard 432

Spiders 435

Cobwebs 436

Funnel Web of a Grass Spider . 438

Orb Web 439

Filmy Dome 443

Ballooning Spiders 444

White Crab Spider 445

Howr the Spider Mothers Take

Care of Their Eggs 446

Other Invertebrates 448

PART III PLANTS

How to Begin the Study of Plants

and Their Flowers 453

Some Needs of Plants 454

How to Teach the Names of the

Parts of a Flower and of the Plant 456

Teach the Use of the Flower ... 457

Flower and Insect Partners .... 457

Relation of Plants to Geography . 458

Seed Germination 458

WILD FLOWERS 460

Hepatica 461

Yellow Adder7 s-Tongue .... 463

Bloodroot 466

Trillium 468

DutchrnanVBreeches and Squir- rel Com 471

Jack-in-the-Pulpit 473

Violet 476

May Apple or Mandrake .... 479

Bluets 483

Yellow Lady's-Slipper 484

Evening Primrose 488

Milkweed 491

White Water Lily 495

Pondweed 498

Cattail 500

Type Lesson for a Composite

Flower 503

Goldenrod 503

Asters 506

The Jewelweed or Touch-me- not 508

WEEDS 512

Outline for the Study of a Weed 513

Poison Ivy 5*4

Prevention of Ivy Poisoning . . 514 Curative Treatment for Ivy Poi- soning 514

Common or Field Buttercup . . 516

Hedge Bindweed 518

XVI

CONTENTS

Dodder

\\Tiite Daisy

Yellow Daisy or Black-eyed Susan

Thistle . .' " . . . .

Burdock

Prickly Lettuce, a Compass

Plant

Dandelion

Pearly Everlasting

Mullein

Teasel

Queen Anne's Lace or Wild Car- ""rot

520

524 527

529 531

53?

537 539

542

GARDEN FLOWERS 546

Crocus 547

Daffodils and Their Relatives . 549

Tulip 552

Pansy 555

Bleeding Heart 558

Poppies 560

California Poppy 563

Nasturtium 566

Bee-Larkspur 568

Blue Flag or Iris 571

Sunflower 574

Bachelors-Button 578

Salvia or Scarlet Sage 579

Petunias 581

Garden or Horseshoe Geranium 585

Sweet Pea 588

CULTIVATED CROP PLANTS .... 591

Clovers 591

Sweet Clover 594

White Clover 596

Maize or Indian Corn .... 598

Cotton Plant 604

Strawberry 608

Pumpkin 611

TREES 618

Parts of the Tree 618

The Way a Tree Grows .... 620

How to Begin Tree Study . . . 622

How to Make Leaf Prints . . . 626

Maples 628

American Elm 634

Oaks 638

Shagbark Hickory 643

Chestnut 645

Horse Chestnut 648

Willows 651

Cottonwood or Carolina Poplar . 655

White Ash 658

Apple Tree 661

How an Apple Grows 665

The Apple 667

Pines 670

Norway Spruce 675

Hemlock 679

Dogwood 680

Velvet or Staghorn Sumac ... 683

Witch Hazel 686

Mountain Laurel 689

FLOWERLESS PLANTS 693

Christmas Fern 693

Bracken 696

How a Fern Bud Unfolds ... 698

Fruiting of the Fern 699

Other Ferns 704

Field Horsetail 706

Hair-cap Moss or Pigeon Wheat 709

Other Mosses and Hepatics . . 712

Mushrooms and Other Fungi . . 714 How Mushrooms Look and How

They Live 716

Puffballs 720

Bracket Fungi 721

Hedgehog Fungi 725

Scarlet Saucer 725

Morels 726

Stinkhorns 727

Molds 727

Bacteria 729

PART IV EARTH AND SKY

THE BROOK 736

Life in the Brook 739

How a Brook Drops Its Load . 740

ROCKS AND MINERALS 743

Rocks 744

Sedimentary Rocks 745

CONTENTS

Igneous Rocks

Metamorphic Rocks .... Calcite, Limestone, and Mar- ble

Minerals

Crystal Growth

Salt

Quartz

Feldspar

Fossils

Mica

THE SOIL

Soil Material

Soil Formation

Kinds of Soil

Soil Experiments

How Valuable Soil Is Lost . Soil Erosion, an Old Problem How to Conserve Our Soil .

THE MAGNET

CLIMATE AND WEATHER

Tower of the Winds

Historical

Atmosphere

Air as a Gas

Composition of Air

Pressure of Atmosphere ....

The Barometer

Height of the Atmosphere . . .

Temperature of the Atmosphere

Thermometer Scales in Use . .

Distribution of Temperature and Pressure

Winds of the World

Storms

Weather Maps

The Principles of Weather Fore- casting

Forecasts Based on Weather Maps

Maps, Where Published and How Obtained

746 748

748

75°

751 753 754

755 756

758

760 761 762 763 764 766 769

77° 776

780 781 781 783 783 783 785 787 788 790

79°

791 791 798

799

799

800

800

Value of Weather Sendee . . . How to Read Weather Maps . .

Highs and Lows

Observations Concerning the

Weather

Weather Proverbs

xvn

801

801

806

807

WATER FORMS 808

THE SKIES

The Story of the Stars

How to Begin Star Study .... Circumpolar Constellations . . The Polestar and the Dippers . . Cassiopeia's Chair, Cepheus, and

the Dragon

Winter Stars

Orion

Aldebaran and the Pleiades . The Two Dog Stars, Sirius and

Procyon

Capella and the Heavenly Twins

Stars of Summer

Regulus

Arcturus

The Crown

Spica

Vega

Antares

Deneb or Arided

Altair

The Sun

Comets and Meteors

Shooting Stars

The Relation between the Tropic

of Cancer and the Planting of

the Garden

The Ecliptic and the Zodiac . .

The Sky Clock

Equatorial Star Finder

The Relations of the Sun to the

Earth

How to Make a Sundial .... The Moon

815 815 818 818 818

821 823 823 826

829

830 831 831 832 832 832 832 833

833 838 839

841 843 844

847

851

853 855

BIBLIOGRAPHY

NATURE STUDY IN GENERAL ... 863 General Information and Stories 863 Essays and Travel 866

Poetry

History and Biography Textbooks and Readers

870 870 872

XV111

CONTENTS

Books for Parents and Teachers 874

Magazines and Periodicals . . . 875

ANIMAL LIFE 877

Animals in General 877

Mammals 880

Birds 884

Reptiles, Amphibians, and Fish 888

Insects and Other Invertebrates 890

PLANT LIFE 895

Plants in General 895

Wild Flowers and Weeds . . . 897

Flowerless Plants 898

Garden Flowers and Cultivated

Crop Plants 899

Trees7 Shrubs, and Woody Vines 901

EARTH AND SKY 904

The Earth and Its Life .... 904

Weather and Climate 906

Stars and Sky 907

MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT

909

INDEX 911

FULL-PAGE PLATES

BIRDS OF PREY AND SCAVENGERS . . 107 Sparrow Hawks Snowy Owl Screech Owl Herring Gull Black Vulture Audubon's Ca- racara

GAME BIRDS 137

Ring-necked Pheasants Wild Turkey Ruffed Grouse? Nest of Eastern Bobwhite or Quail Dusky Grouse Woodcock on Nest"

143

BIRDS OF MARSH AND SHORE . . . Shoveller Mallard Lesser Scaup Ducks Pied-billed Grebe Spotted Sandpiper Wilson's Plover King Rail Common Tern American Egret Ameri- can Bittern

TAILLESS AMPHIBIANS 185

American Bell Toad Oak Toad

Narrow Mouth Toad Can- yon or Spotted Toad Great Plains Toad Spadefoot Toad

Hammond's Spadefoot Canadian or Winnipeg Toad Yosemite Toad

TAILED AMPHIBIANS 191

Spotted Salamander Red Sala- mander — Marbled Salamander

Mud Puppy Tiger Salaman- der — Slimy Salamander Slen- der Salamander Cave Salaman- der

SNAKES I 201

Ribbon Snake Coral Snake Rubber Boa Rough Green Snake Timber Rattlesnake Desert Gopher Snake or Bull Snake Ring-necked Snake

Sidewinder or Horned Rattle- snake

SNAKES II 203

Pike-headed Tree Snake or Ari- zona Long-headed Snake Pilot Black Snake Copperhead Boyle's King Snake or Boyle's Milk Snake Gray Pilot Snake

Water Moccasin or Cotton- mouth California Lyre Snake

Southern Hognose Snake

LIZARDS I 211

Banded Gecko Chameleon Fence Lizard Glass Snake or Legless Lizard Alligator Liz- ard or Plated Lizard Sonoran Skink Gila Monster

LIZARDS II 213

Regal Horned Toad Horned Toad Male Fence Lizard Mountain Boomer or Collared Lizard Whip-tail or Race Run- ner — Chuck-walla

ANIMALS OF Zoos AND PARKS . . . 291 Rhinoceros Hippopotamus Kangaroo Zebra Malay Tiger

Polar Bear Nubian Gi- raffe — Bactrian or Two-humped Camel Wapiti or American « Elk " - Virginia or White- tailed Deer

AQUATIC INSECTS 403

"Stone Fly May Fly Back Swimmer Water Boatman Water Walking Stick Water Scorpion Water Bug Giant Water Bug or Electric-Light Bug

Water Strider Dobson Predacious Diving Beetle Div- ing Beetle Water Scavenger

XX

FULL-PAGE PLATES

Beetle Whirligig Beetle - Wa- ter Penny or Riffle Beetle Black Fly Crane Fly Drone Fly

SHELLS OF FLORIDA AND THE EAST

COAST 419

Crown Melongena Brown- mouth Cymatium White- mouth Cymatium Lined Mu- rex — Mossy Ark Black Lace Murex Apple Murex White-spike Murex Moon Shell - Rock Worm Shell - Mouse Cone Florida Cone Giant Band Shell - Lettered Olive Netted Olive Mottled Top Shell Ridged Chione