Ibidis auspicio novas incipit Ibidis ordo.








The completion of the present volume brings the Third Series of ' The Ibis ' to a close. Pressure of other duties preventing my continuing the sole charge of the Journal, Mr. P. L. Sclater has, with the approval of a Meeting of the British Ornitho- logists' Union held in May last, consented to join m.e in editing a Eourth Series, which will be com- menced in January next.

In thanking the many contributors to the pages of ' The Ibis ' for their support during my past term of office as Editor, I beg leave on behalf of Mr. Sclater and myself to solicit their further aid in maintaining the high character * The Ibis ' has hitherto borne in advancing the science of Orni- thology.



Brooklands Avenue, Cambridge. October 1876,


[An asterisk indicates an Original Member.]

Date of


1874. Edward R. Alston, F.Z.S, ; Dorset Street, London, W. 1870. Andrew Anderson, f .Z.S. ; Futtehgurh, North- West Pro-

Yinces, India.

1872. Hanbuey Barclay, F.Z.S. ; Middleton Hall, Tamworth.

1875. John Biddulph, Capt. 19th Hussars ; Government House,


1873. W. T. Blanpord, F.R.S. &c. ; Geological Survey of India,


1870. Sir Victor Brooke, Bart. ; Colebrooke, Fermanagh, Ireland.

1871. Arthur Basil Brooke ; Cardney, Dunkeld, N.B. 1866. Henry Buckley, F.Z.S. ; Edgbaston, Birmingham.

1868. Thomas Edward Buckley, B.A., F.Z.S. ; ArduUie Lodge, Foulis, N. B.

1872. Walter La wry Buller, C.M.G., Sc.D., F.L.S., &c. ; Wel-

lington, New Zealand.

1876. Lord Clifton ; Cobham HaU, Gravesend.

1876. H.R.H. Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught, K.G.

1874. John Cordeaux ; Great Cotes, Ulceby, Lincolnshire.

1866. Arthur William Crichton, ^.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S. ; Broadward Hall, Salop.

1874. Charles Danpord, F.Z.S. ; Knowles, Newton, Devon.

1865. Henry Eeles Dresser, F.Z.S. ; 6 Tenterden Street, Hanover Square, London, W. *Henry Maurice Drummond-Hay, C.M.Z.S., Lieutenant-Colo- nel, Royal Perth Rifles ; Seggieden, Perth.

1876. Henry DuRNFORD ; Buenos Ayrcs.

Date of Election.

1870. Daniel Giraud Ellkjt,, ic. ; 5 Hue de Tilsitt,


1866. Henry John Elwes, F.Z.S. ; Preston, Cirencester. •Thomas Campbell Eytox, F.Z.S. ; Eyton Hcall, Wellington,

Halo]). 1873. H. W. Feilden, Captain and Paymaster, Eoyal Artillery.

1867. George Gooch Fowler, B.A. ; Gunton Hall, Lowestoft,

Suffolk. 1865. llev. Henry Elliott Fox, M.A. ; 30 Warwick Square, London, S.W.

1873. Alfred Henry Garrod, M.A., F.Z.S. ; 1 1 Harley Street, London. •Frederick DuCane Godman, F.L.S., F.Z.S. ; 6 Tenterden

Street, Hanover Square, W. •Percy Sanden Godman, B.A., C.M.Z.S. ; The Grange, Sher- manbury, Henfield, Sussex.

1874. Major H. Godwin- Austen, F.Z.S. ; Shalford House, Guild-

ford, Surrey.

1871. Robert Gray ; 13 Inverleith Eow, Edinburgh.

1876. C. L. G. GtJNTHER, M.A., M.D., F.R.S., &c. ; Keeper of the Zoological Department, British Museum, London. •John Henry Gurney, F.Z.S. ; Xorthrepps, ^^orwich. 1870. John Henry Gurney, Jun., F.Z.S. ; Northrcpps, Norwich. 1876. H. C. Harford ; 99th Regiment.

1868. James Edmund Hartinr, F.L.S., F.Z.S. ; 24 Lincoln's Inu

Fields, London. 1873. John A. Harvie Brown ; Dunipace House, Larbert, N.B.

1868. Rev. Herbert S. H.4.wk;ins, M.A. ; Beyton Rectory, Suffolk.

1875. J. C. Hele ; Knowles, Newton- Abbot.

1873. Charles B. Hodgson, F.Z.S. ; 13 Waterloo Street, Bir-

mingham. •Wilfrid Hudleston Hudleston, M.A., F.Z.S. ; 23 Cheyne Walk, Chelsea.

1874. Baron A. von HtJGEL ; Moorlands, Bournemouth.

1869. Allan Octavian Hume, C.B. ; Secretary to the Government

of India, Calcutta. 1873. Most Hon. Charles, Marquess of Huntly; 41 Upper Gros- venor Street, London.

1870. Hon. Hedworih Hylion-Jolliffe ; Merstham, Red Hill,

Surrey. 1870. Col. Leonard Hoa\ akd L. Ikby, F.Z.S. ; Hythe, Southampton.


Date of Election.

1874. Capt. Alexander W. M. Clarke Kennedy, F.L.S., F.1I.G.8., F.Z.S. ; Carruchan, Dumfries, N.B. *Arthur Edward Knox, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S. ; Trotton House, Petersfield, Sussex. 1876. Captain Vincent Legge, R.A. ; Colombo, Ceylon.

*Right Hon. Thomas Lyttleton, Lord Lilford, F.L.S,, F.Z.S., &c. ; Lilford Hall, Oundle, Northants.

1874. Major John Hayes Lloyd, F.Z.S.; 74 Adelaide Road, Haver-

stock Hill, London, N.W.

1875. John Wingfifld Malcolm, M.P. ; 7 Stanhope Street, May-

fair, London, W. 1870. C. H. T. Marshall, F.Z.S, ; Captain, Bengal Staff Corps.

1870. G. F. L. Marshall, F.Z.S. ; Capt. Royal (Bengal) Engineers,

1864. Alexander Goodman More, F.L.S. &c. ; 3 Botanic View,

GlasneWn, Dublin, 1874. Rhodes W, Morgan ; Madras Forest Department, Ootaca- mund, India.

1876. Hugh Nevill; Ceylon Civil Service,

1872. Francis D'Arcy William Clotjgh Newcome ; FeltweU Hall, Brandon, Suffolk. *Alfred Newton, M.A,, F.R.S., V.P.Z.S. ; Professor of Zoology

in the University of Cambridge. *Edward Newton, M.A., C,M,G., F.L.S., C.M.Z.S,, Colonial Secretary, Mauritius, 1876, Francis Nicholson; Stamford Road, Bowdon, Cheshire.

1871. Reginald Carew Pole, Lieut. Royal Navy ; Yovilton, II-

chester. *John William Powlett-Orde, F.Z.S., late Captain, 42nd (Royal Highland) Regiment ; Auchnaba House, Loch Gilp Head, N. B,

1872. R. G. Wardlaw Ramsay, 67th Regiment ; White HiU, Lass-

wade, N, B.

1865. George Dawson Rowley, M.A., F.Z.S. ; Chichester House,


1873. Oliver Beauchamp Coventry^^St. John, Major R.A., F.Z.S. *OsBERT Salvin, M.A., F.R.S., &c.; 6 Tenterden Street, Han- over Square, London, W.

1870. Howard Saunders, F.Z.S. ; 7 Radnor Place, Hyde Park.

*Philip Lutley Sclater, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., &c. ; 44 Elvas- ton Place, Queen's Gate, London, W.

Date of Election.

1873. Henry Seebohm ; Oak Lea, Collegiate Crescent, Broomhall

Park, Sheffield.

1871. Richard Bowdler Sharpe, F.L.S., F.Z.S. ; Senior Assistant,

Zoological Department, British Museum. 1870. G. Ernest Shelley, F.Z.S., late Captain, Grenadier Guards;

6 Tenterden Street, Hanover Square, London, W. 1865. Rev. Charles William Shepherd, M.A., F.Z.S. ; Trotters-

cliffe, Kent. 1804. Rev. Alfred Charles Smith, M.A. ; Yatesbury Rectory,


1874. Cecil Smith ; Lydiard House, Taunton, Somersetshire.

1875. A. C. Stark. Hillstead, Torquay, Devon.

1864. Henry Stevenson, F.L.S. ; Unthank's Road, JSorwich. 1868. Hamon Styleman Le Strange, F.Z.S. ; Hunstanton Hall,

Norfolk. 1875. Paget Walter Le Strange, Lieut. -Col. Royal Artillery,

Sheerness. 1862. Robert Swinhoe, F.R.S., late of H, M. Consular Service,

China. 33 Carlyle Square, London, S.W. *Edward Cavendish Taylor, M.A., F.Z.S. ; 74 Jermyn Street,

London. 1864. George Cavendish Taylor, F.Z.S. ; 42 Elvaston Place,

Queen's Gate, London.

1873. William Bernhard Tegetmeier, F.Z.S. ; Finchley, Middlesex. *Rev. Henry Baker Tristram, M.A., LL.D., F.R.S., «fec.,

Canon of Durham. The College, Durham. 1864. Most Hon. Arthur, Marquess of TwEEDDALE,F.R.S.,Pres.Z.S.,

Walden Cottage, Chislehurst, Kent. 1864. Henry Morris Upcher, F.Z.S. ; Sherringham Hall, Norfolk.

1872. Herbert Taylor Ussher, C.M.G., Lieut.-Governor of La-

huan, Borneo.

1874. Charles Bygrave Wharton, F.Z.S. ; Boundary Road, London,

N.W. 1871. E. Perctval Wright, M.D., F.L.S., F.Z.S., Professor of Botany in the University of Dublin.

1875. Charles A. Wright.

1876. Claude W. Wyatt ; Adderbury, Banbury.

Elvira- Ordinary Member. 1860. Alfred Russel Wallace, F.Z.S. ; Roschill, Dorking,

Date of Election.

Honorary Members.

1860. Professor Spencer F. Bated, Assistant Secretary to the Smith- sonian Institution, Washington.

1860. Doctor Eduard Baldamus, Moritzwinger, No. 7, Halle.

1860. Doctor Jean Cabanis, Erster Gustos am koniglichen Museum der Friedrich-Wilhelm's Universitiit zu Berlin.

1870. Doctor Otto Finsch, Zoological Museum, Bremen.

1860. Doctor Gttstav Hartlaub, Bremen.

1860. Edgar Leopold Layard, C.M.G., F.Z.S., H.M. Consul, New Caledonia.

1869. AxjGtrsT von Pelzeln, Gustos am k.-k. zoologischen Gabinete in Wien.

1860. Professor J. Reinhardt, Kongelige Naturhistoriske Museum i Kjohenhavn.

Foreign Members.

1872. Prof. J. V. Barboza du Bocage, Royal Museum, Lisbon.

1875. Hans Graf von Berlepsch, Witzenhausen, Hessen- Nassau.

1872. Prof. J. F. Brandt, Imperial Museum, St. Petersburg.

1873. Robert Gollett, Christiania.

1872. Doctor Elliott Goues, U.S. Army, Smithsonian Institution,

Wasliington, D. C. 1875. Marchese Giacomo Doria, Genoa. 1872. Doctor Victor Fatio, Geneva. 1872. Doctor Henry Hillyer Giglioli, Royal Superior Institute,

Florence. 1872. Doctor Theodor von Heitglin, Stuttgart. 1872. George N. Lawrence, New Tori: 1872. Baron De Selys Longchamps, Liege. 1872. Doctor A. J. Malmgren, Helsingfors. 1872. Doctor A. von Middendorfp, Dorpat. 1872. Alphonse Milne-Edwards, Jardin des Plantes, Paris. 1872. Prof. GusTAV Radde, Tiflis.

1872. Gount ToMMASo Salvadori, Royal Museum, Turin. 1872. Prof. Herman Schlegel, University Museum, Leyden.



Ntjmber XXI., January.


I. Second Thoughts on the Genus Micrastur. By Robert lliDGAVAY, of the Ornithological Department, U.S. National Mu- seum, Washington 1

II. Remarks on some Type Specimens of Trochilida; from the Museimis of iS'euchatel and Florence. By D. G. Elliot, F.R.S.E., P.L.S., &c 5

III. The Genus Glaucidium. By Robert Ridgway, of the Ornithological Department, U.S. National Museimi, Wash- ington. (Plate I.) 11

IV. Notes on the Ornithology of Corsica. By C. Bygrave Wharton, F.Z.S 17

V. Contributions to the Ornithology of Borneo.- Part I. By

R. BowDLER Sharpe. (Plate II.) 29

VI. Descriptions of two new Species of South- African Birds. By R. Bowdler Sharps, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c.. Senior Assistant, Zoological Department, British Museum 52

VII. Notes on the TrocJiilidce. The Genus Lampropygia.

By D. G. Elliot, F.R.S.E., F.L.S. &c 54

VIII. Ornithological Notes from Constantinople. By P. L. ScLATER and E. C. Taylor 60

IX. Notes on a ' Catalogue of the Accipitres in the British Museum,' by R. Bowdler Sharpe (1874). By J. H. Gur^-ey. (Plate III.) 65

X. Notes on Severtzoff 's ' Fauna of Turkestan ' (Turkes- tanskie Jevotnie). By H. E. Dresser 77



XI. On the Assignation of a Type to Linncean Genera, -with especial reference to the Genus Strix. By Alfred Newton, M.A., F.ll.S., &c 94

XII. Notes on the Birds of the Lower Petchora. By Henry Seebohm, F.Z.S., and John A. Harvie Brown 105

XIII. Letters, Announcements, &c. :

Letters from Capt. Legge, Mr. Cordeaux, Mr. Gumey, Mr. D. G. EUiot, Mr. T. E. Buckley, and Viscount Walden . . . 12()

Nitmber XXII., Aiwil.

XIV. Notes on some little-known Birds of the new Colony of the Fiji Islands. By Edgar L. Layard, C.M.G., F.Z.S., Administrator of the Government 137

XV. Notes on the Ornithology of Fiji, with Descriptions of new or little-known Species. By E. L. Layard, C.M.G., F.Z.S., ifec, H.B.M. Consul 152

XVI. Ornithological Notes from the Neighbourhood of Buenos Ayres. By Henry Durnfokd 157

XVII. Notes on the Genus RelminthopJiaga. By Rodert Ridgway 106

XVIII. Notes on Severtzoff 's ' Fauna of Turkestan ' (Turkes- tanskic Jcvotnic). By H. E. Dresser ........ 171

XIX. Ornithological Notes made during Trips between Bloemfontein and the Lydenburg Gold-fields. By F. A. Bar- RATT. (Plate IV.) 191

XX. Notes on the Birds of the Lower Petchora. By Henry Seebohm, F.Z.S., and John A. Harvie Brown. (Plate V.) . 215

XXI. Notes on a 'Catalogue of the Accipitres in the British Museum,' by R. Bowdler Sharpe (1874). By J. H. Gurney . 230

XXII. On Recent Ornithological Progress in New Guinea.

By P. L. Sclater 243

XXIII. Notes on a Collection of Birds from the New He- brides. By H. B. Tristram, F.R.8 259

XXIV. On Sericidus ccanthogastei\ Schl., and Xanthomelus aureus (Linn.). By T. Salvadori, C.M.Z.iS 267



XXV. Notices of recentlj^ published Ornithological Works . 270

XXVI. Letters, Announcements, &c. :

Letters from Mr. H. Stevenson, Count Salvadori, Mr. J. H. (Turne}-, and Major J. Hayes-Lloyd. News from Mr. Danford in Asia Minor 270

Number XXIII., July.

XXVII. On the Psittacl of the Mascarene Islands. By Alfred and Edward Newton. (Plate VI.) 281

XXVIII. Notes on the Birds of the Lower Fetch ora. By Henry Seebohm, F.Z.S., and John A. Harvie Broavn. (Plate VII.) 289

XXIX. Notes on the Trochilidce. The Genera Cyanomyia and Udiotnjplia. By D. G. Elliot, F.R.S.E. «fec 311

XXX. Notes on Severtzoff's 'Fauna of Turkestan' (Turkes- tanskie Jevotnie). By H. E. Dresser 319

XXXI. On the Contents of a third Box of Birds from Ha- kodadi, in Northern Japan. By R. Swinhoe. (Plate VIII.) . 330

XXXII. Notes on the late Colonel Tickell's manuscript Work entitled " Illustrations of Indian Ornithology." By Arthur, Viscount Walden. (Plates IX,, X.) 336

XXXIIL Further Ornithological News from New Guinea. By P. L. Sclater, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S 357

XXXIV. Notes on a ' Catalogue of the Accipitres in the British Museum,' by R. Bowdler Sharpe (1874). By J. H. GURNEY 364

XXXV. Description of a new Species of the Genus Tri- chostoma from the Island of Celebes. By Arthur, Viscount Walden. (Plate XI.) 376

XXXVI. On two additional Species of Central-American Odontophorince. By Osbert Salvin, M.A., F.R.S., &c. . . . 379

XXXVII. Letters, Announcements, »fec. :

Letters from Mr. W. Jesse, Mr. A. B, Meyer, Mr. J. H. Gurney, Lord Walden, and Count Salvadori. News of Mr. Layard . . 380



NiTMBER XXIV., (Jciohrr.

XXXVIII. Description of a new 8i)ccics of Flycatcher {My- iagra) from the Fijis, and some llemarks on the Distrihution of the Birds found in those Islands. By Edgak Leopold Layard, C.M.G., F.Z.S., lately administering the Government of that Colony 387

XXXIX. Notes on the Troehilidce. The Genera Heliothrix, Callij)Mox, Catharma, and Petasophora. By D. E. Elliot, F.R.S.E. &c 394

XL. Description of a new Tanager of the Genus Ccdliste, and Remarks on other recently discovered Species. By P. L. Sclater. (Plate XII.) 407

XLL Notes on Severtzoff 's ' Fauna of Turkestan ' (Turkes- tanskie Jevotnie). By H. E. Dresser 410

XLII. Xotes on Birds collected and observed in the Lyden- burg District of the Eepublic of Transvaal. By Thomas Ayres. (Communicated By J. H. Gurney) 422

XLIII. Notes on the Birds of the Lower Petchora. By Henry Seebohm, F.Z.S., and John A, Hartie Brown . . . 434

XLIV. A Review of the Genus Malimhus, Vieillot. By D. G. Elliot, F.R.S.E. &c. (Plate Xni.) 456

XLV. Notes on a ' Catalogue of the Accipitres in the British Museum,' by R. Bowdler Sharpe (1874). By J. H. Gurney . 467

XLVI. On some new Species of Birds from Western Ecuador. By OsBEET Salvin, M.A., F.R.S., &c. (Plate XIV.) .... 493

XLVII. Note on Muscipeta incanescens, Wied. By George N. Lawrence 497

XLVm. Description of a new Species of Myiolestes from Fiji. By E. L. Layard, C.M.G., F.Z.S., &c., H.B.M. Consul at Naumea, New Caledonia 498

XLIX. A few Ornithological Notes and Corrections. By W. E. Brooks 499

L. Letters, Announcements, &c. :

Letters from Mr. E. L. Layard, Count Salvador!, and Mr. R. Swinhoe 504

Index 509



I. Glaucidiiim jardinii . 14

jy r Fig. 1. Orthotomus borneonensis I 41

1 Fig. 2, Calamodyta doriae J

III. Buteo hyposi3odiu3 76

IV. Bradypterus barratti 202

V. Eggs of Squatarola helvetica 222

VI. Palseornis wardi 282

VII. Eggs of Tringa minuta 294

yyyi- f Fig. 1. Aiuudinax blakistoni 1 ^32

' 1 Fig. 2. Schoeniclus pyrrhulinus J

IX. Picus atratus 343

^ J Fig. 1. Zosterops siamensis \ ggQ

* I Fig. 2. Dicaeum trigonostigma J

^y f Fig. 1. Trichostoma finschi \ oyg

' 1 Fig. 2. celebense J

„yy f Fig. 1. Calliste melanotis 1 ^Qg

' 1 Fig. 2. cyanotis J

„yyy J Fig. 1. MaUiiibu 8 cassini I 461

* 1 Fig. 2. rubriceps J

XIV. Capito squamatus 494


Pa^e Line

21, 18, for March read April.

65, 7, for 370 read 484.

1.36, 35, for 16 read 6.56. 188, 6, for TscHiTREA read Tciiitrea.

349, 23, for IX. read X.

350, 30, for IX. read X.

353, 29, for Trichastoma read Trichosfoma.

363, 34, for GliciphUa read Gli/ciphila.

376, .34, for Trichadoma read Trichostoma.

385, 13 & 23, /o;- Briiggenian rfffti? Briiggeinauii

420, 28, for QLdemia read Fuligida.



No. XXI. JANUARY 1876.

I. Second Thoughts on the Genus Micrastur. By Robert RiDGWAY, of the Ornithological Department, U.S. National Museum, Washington.

Having recently examined the entire series of the smaller members of this genus contained in the collection of Messrs. Salvin and Godman, sent to me for that purpose, I have been induced to modify to some extent my views given in the ' Proceedings ' of the Boston Society of Natural History for 1873.

The series is a splendid one, and has, I think, enabled me to get the right idea of the species of this exceedingly per- plexing group.

Setting M. melanoleucus (sive " semitorquatus") and M. mirandoUii aside, as being distinct enough to need no notice in connexion with the smaller species, I identify the names of previous authors as follows :

Sparvius ruJicollis,Yie\\\., = M. ruficolJis, Scl. & Salv., rufous phase, adult.

Sparvius gilvicollis, Vieill.*,=M. leucauchen, Scl. & Salv.,

* This cannot, according to ' the terms of the diagnosis, be M. gilvi- collis, Scl. & Salv., if the latter = my concentriciis, which = concentricus of SER. III. VOL. VI. B

2 Mr. R. Ridgway on the Genus Micrastur.

M. gilvicoUis, Pelz. Orn. Voy. Novara { = M. rvficollis, plum- beous phase, adult) .

Fatco hucjinclien, Temm., = il/. ruficollis, Scl. & Salv., rufous pliase (?), young.

Falco xanthothorax, Temm.,=il/. ruficollis, rufous adult.

Nisus concentricus, Less., is undeterminable ; and if the type does not exist, the name may be thrown aside as entirely worthless, though Pelzcln distinguished a very distinct species by this name, which should be adopted for that bird"^.

Micrastur guerilla, Cass.,^M. guerilla, Scl. & Salv.

Micrastur zonothorax,CsLham^,==M. zonothorax, Scl. & Salv.

My M. leucauchen (paper in Pr. Boston Soc.) is the young of M. leucauchen of Scl. & Salv, ; and they, together, are young and old jilumages of M. ruficollis.

I was certainly wrong in referring so many of the recog- nized forms to one species ; but this was partly owing to the impossibility of making desirable comparisons.

Before proceeding to give a diagnosis of the species I now distinguish, it will be best to make a few remarks regarding the stages of plumage assumed by them, and which, if clearly borne in mind, will remove the greatest obstacle towards understanding the species. In the first place, there is no sexual difference in coloration, beyond what results from irregular variations of an individual character ; in the next place, in M. guerilla and M. ruficollis, there are two quite different " phases " of plumage, corresponding in every jiar- ticular to the grey and rufous plumages of certain Owls (notably Scops, Glaucidium, and Syrnium aluco), and which are most unquestionably entirely independent of sex, age, or season. The grey phase may be taken as the normal one, since the other is merely the evidence of a colour-variation,

Pelzeln. It is distinctly stated to have the posterior lower parts ban-ed, which the latter has not ; and there are other points which point to M. leucauchen, Scl. & Salv. [At our request Mr. D. G. Elliot searched for Vieillot's type of M. gilvicoUis in the Paris Museum, but failed to find it. We now think, with Mr. Ridgway, that the name M. concentricus had best be used for the Guiana bird. Ed. J

* [Lesson's type does exist, and is doubtless the bird here called 31. £oncentricus, and also by v. Pelzeln. Ed.]

Mr. R. Ridgway ow the Genus Micrastur. 3

termed by Pelzeln " erythrism/' and entirely analogous to the condition of melanism . The condition is most exaggerated in M. ruficollis, but it is plainly visible in M. guerilla. No rufous specimens have been seen of M. concentricus , Ve\z., nor M. pelzelni ; and^ on the other hand, I have seen no plumbeous examples of M. zonothorax. But such probably occm-, and should be borne in mind before any new form is described.

Synopsis of the Species of Micrastur. A, Outer toe decidedly longer than the inner. a. Size large (wing more than 8 inches).

1. Above black, with a nuchal collar of white or ochraceous.

M. vielanoleucus* .

2. Above plumbeous, without a nuchal collar . . M. mirandollii. h. Size small (wing less than 8 inches).

3. Wing 6-50-7-10, tail G-90-7-50. Tail crossed by 3-6 (terminal

bar not counted) indistinct bars of white or pale greyish. Adult. Tail-bars 3-4; above plumbeous, the dorsal region sometimes chocolate; throat light grey; jugulum, breast, and entire lower parts barred with white and dusky. Young. Above dark clove- brown, plain or indistinctly spotted posteriorly ; beneath white or buff, rarely immaculate, usually coarsely barred.

M. fjiierilla.

4. Wing 6-90-7-O0, tail 7-G0-8-40. Tail with 4-7 distinct white

bars. Adult. Above, including neck and most of head, rusty chocolate, less reddish anteriorly; throat light chocolate; jugu- lum and entire lower parts everywhere ban-ed with white and dusky. Tail-bands 4-5. Youmj. Above dark sooty brown, in- distinctly barred with rusty ; cro'^vni and nape sooty black ; lower parts white or buff, rarely immaculate, usually barred, and loitli- out rufous tinge on the breast ; tail-bars Q-7. M. zonothorax.

5. Wing 6-G0-7a0, tail 7 •30-7-80. Tail with 4-8 usually distinct

white bars. Adult. Breast washed with rufous ; throat light grey ; other lower parts everywhere barred with white and dusky; crown plumbeous ; other upper parts varying from clear light bluish plumbeous to rusty brown. Tail-bars 4. Young. Above varying from greyish brown to dark rusty chocolate ; throat and half-crescent behind the ear-coverts white, in abrupt contrast ; beneath white, coarsely baiTed with dusky brown

M. ruficollis.

* I cannot identify Sparvius setnitorquatus, Vieill., with this species, since that is said to have the top of the head white, ban-ed with black, whereas it is always plain black in this bird, which, in the adult plumage is S. melanoleucus, Yieill,

B 2

4 Mr. R. Ridgway on the Genus Micrastur.

6. Wing 6-50, tail 6 30. Adult. Tail crossed by 2 bars of pale

brownish grey. Above uniform dark plumbeous, the tail dai-ker and wings bro^^^ler ; throat light grey ; rest of lower parts white, barred everywhere with dusky, tliese bars very narrow and dis- tant on the flanks and crissiim 31. pelzelni.

B. Outer toe not longer (sometimes shorter) than the inner.

7. Wing 7-10-7-75, tail C-30-7-00. Adult. Tail-bands 1-4, narrow,

white ; upper parts dull plumbeous, the tail darker, and the wings browner ; throat greyish white ; other lower parts white, the crissutn immaculate, the other portions barred with plum- beous. Young. Similar, but a whitish crescent behind the ear- coverts, the upper parts browner, the lower tinged with ochra- ceous, and the tibiae and flanks also immaculate.

M. concentricus.

The following table will serve to elucidate the synonymy of the species^ as understood by me :









{Scl. ^- Salvin).


1. melanoleucus





2, mirandoUii





3. guerilla


rufleollis, pt.



4. zonothorax


ruficollis, pt.


5. ruficoUis

ruficollis <

leucauchen ruficollis, pt.

leucauchen rufleollis

xanthothorax gilvicollis

6. pelzelni

gilvicollis (pt.)

7. concentricus





The following is a description of M. pelzelni :


Sp. Ch. Outer toe decidedly longer than the inner; tail shorter than the wing. Adult (^* above uniform (continii- ous) dark plumbeous. Tail darker, narrowly tipped with white, and crossed by two narrow bands of dull brownish grey, becoming white on inner webs. Sides of head and neck plumbeous grey ; throat light grey ; rest of lower parts white, marked everywhere with narrow transverse bars of dark plumbeous or slate, these bars widest on the breast (where they are narrower than the white interspaces), and

* Type of species in Mas. Salvin and Godnian, from Sarayacu, Upper Ucayali, Peruvian Amazons, collected by E. Bartlett, August 2, 1865.

Mr. D. G. Elliot on some Trochilidse. 5

narrowest on the flanks and crissumj where they are very distant. Wing 6'50 inches, tail 6*30, culmen -60, tarsus 230, middle toe 120.

Remarks. At first sight this species has a very close re- semblance to the plumbeous phase of M. guerilla ; but upon a close comparison it is found to difi'er essentially in having the tail shorter than the wing, instead of longer, and to be crossed by much fewer (two instead of three or foui-) light bars. With respect to the shortness of the tail, it agrees with M. concentricus ; but that species differs (not only from this, but all others of the genus) in having the lateral toes of nearly equal length, the outer, if either, being the shorter, and also in ha\dng the crissum unbarred white. M. mirandollii, one of the large species, alone agrees with the present bird in having the tail shorter than the wing, and, at the same time, the outer toe longer than the inner.

II. Remarks on some Type Specimens o/ Trochilidse /rom the Museums of Neuchdtel and Florence. By D. G. Elliot, F.R.S.E., F.L.S., &c.

The receipt of three of Tschudi^s types from the Museum of Neuchatel, through the kindness of M. Coulon, the director, has given me an opportunity of making several comparisons, the results of which may not perhaps be uninteresting to ornithologists.


Trochilus {Lampornis)insectivo7'us, Tschudi, Fauna Peruana, p. 248, t. 28. f. 1.

Bourcieria insectivora, Gould, lutr. Troch. p. 135, sp. 278.

Hab. Peru.

In the ' Fauna Peruana,' Tschudi described and figured a Humming-bird obtained by him between Huari and Chaga- cancha, at a height of 14,600 feet above the sea, in Peru, as Trochilus insectivorus . It was evidently either a young bird or a female ; and as, mitil lately, no other specimens than those obtained by Tschudi have reached us, naturalists have

6 Mr. D. G. Elliot on some

been in some doubt whether Tsehudi^s bird belonged to a distinct species, or to one already described ; at the same time the examples presented certain differences not reconcilable with any specimens in our collections. Through the kind- ness of M. Taczanowski, director of the "Warsaw Museum, I have lately received a specimen of a fine adult male, shot by M. Jelski in Peru, the country whence Tschudi^s bird came, and which, I have no doubt, I am right in attributing to B. insectivora. In order to satisfy ourselves in the matter, Mr. Salvin wrote to M. Coulon, at Neuchatel, for the loan of Tschudi's type, a request which, with his characteristic libe- rality, was at once acceded to. On comparison it appears to be a female ; and therefore, as the male has never been de- scribed, and as it is quite different from any known species of Bourcieria, I have thought it might be useful for ornitho- logists to become acquainted with it in the adult dress. It is nearest to B. fulyicliyula in the group to which it belongs, and not to B. conradi, as supposed by Mr. Gould. It may be described as follows :

Head and back of neck jet-black ; centre of the crown bril- liant metallic golden green, very bright and conspicuous. Throat metallic green, this colour extending over the sides of the neck, but much less brilliant, being a kind of metallic gloss on the black of that part. Back and upper tail-coverts metallic grass-green. Wings like the back, primaries pur- plish brown. Upper part of breast, extending to the green of the throat, pure white ; rest of underparts and under tail- coverts shining gTass-green. Median tail-feathers shining grass-green ; remainder pure white tipped with green, this last becoming more extensive as it proceeds towards the outer- most rectrices, which are nearly one third green from the tip, and running much fiu'ther towards the base on the outer web than on the inner. The bill is long, straight, and pointed, black throughout. The feet flesh-colour.

The female (Tschudi^s type) differs in having the head, throat, and upper parts shining green, with none of the black observable in the male. Median rectrices green; rest white, tipped with black glossed with green. The white is much

I'ype Specimens of ^^vodhxYidyd. 7

more extensive upon tlic tail-feathers than on those of the male ; but this appears to be characteristic of the females of all the various species of the genus Bourcieriu.

The present species is one of the very handsomest of this genus, being only exceeded in beauty by B. inca, Gould.

Heliodoxa leadbeateri.

Trochilus leadbeateri, Bourc. Rev. Zool. ISJ^S, p. 102.

Trochilus otero, Tschudi, Consp. Av., Wiegm. Archiv, 1843, p. 390; id. Faun. Per. p. 249, taf. xxiii. fig. 2 (1845-46).

Leadbeatera grata, Gould, Intr. Troch. p. 75, sp. 112.

Leadbeatera otero, Gould, Intr. Troch. p. 74, sp. 110.

Leadbeatera grata, Bonap. Trochil. Bev. Mag. Zool. 185-1, p. 251.

Leadbeatera otero, Bonap. Trochil. Rev. ^lag. Zool. 1854, p. 251.

Leadbeatera splendens, Gould, Intr. Troch. p. 74, sp. 111.

Heliodoxa otero, Gould, Mon. Troch. ii. pi. xcvi.

Heliodoxa leadbeateri, Gould, Mon. Troch. ii. pi. xcvii.

Hab, Venezuela, Columbia, Peru, Bolivia.

This bird was first described by Bourcier in the ' Revue Zoologique '' for April 1843, from New Granada ; and in the same year Tschudi described and figured it from Peru as T. otero. Succeeding authors have kept these birds separate, notably Mr. Gould, founding the species upon the size, chiefly that of the bill. In his ' Introduction ' to the Trochilidai, Mr. Gould further distinguishes the bird from Venezuela as Leadbeatera splendens, stating that it is allied to the Bolivian bird, but differs in having a " straighter and shorter bill, and in the green tint of the under surface.^^ Lately Mr. Buckley has brought specimens from Chairo, in Bolivia, a place about 6000 feet above the sea ; and these are not to be distiugviished from the Columbian bird. Tschudi's type of Trochilus otero is quite a young bird, and in length of bill and general size is like specimens from Columbia; while the Venezuelan birds, L. splendens, and adult so-called otero, from Bolivia, with the long bills, are, so far as I am able to see, precisely alike ; and intermediate lengths of bill arc obtainable in specimens from

8 Mr. D. G. Elliot on some

Columbia and Bolivia respectively. Besides the ^'eat diffi- culty ot" recognizing more than one species by size (for there is absolutely no change of colour or brilliancy in the plumage to warrant any specific rank being granted to more than one form) , there is the geographical distribution of the species. If three species are to be accepted, we find that L. splendens in the north is separated from L. otero in Bolivia by L. grata of Columbia, and that the last two become mingled toge- tlier in Bolivia not at all a probable state of things for really distinct species. As in many groups of Humming- birds, a variability in size of bill and length of wing, and perhaps also of tail, is discernible ; but if these, unsup- ported by other more important characters, are to be accepted as always denoting distinct species, much confusion is certain to be the resvilt, and no limit can be fixed beyond which any naturalist, possessed with keen sight and enthusiastic appre- ciation of minute difference, may not go. It may, however, be advanced, with much probability, that there is only one species of those birds consigned to the genus Leadbeatera, whose range extends from Venezuela, through Columbia, into Bolivia, being somewhat variable in the size of the bills of indi- viduals from some localities, though it is almost certain that a large series of specimens would yield a regular series of in- termediate measurements. I do not see that Bonaparte had any reason for taking this bird out of the genus Heliodoxa, and, therefore, have not adopted his term.

Lexjcippus leucogaster.

Trochilus leucogaster, Tschudi, Consp. Av. inWiegm. Archiv, 1844, p. 297.

Trochilus chiono g aster , Tsch. Faun. Peruan. p. 247, t. 22. fig. 2.

Leucippus chionogaster, Gould, Intr. Troch. p. 150, sp. 321.

Trochilus ( ?) hypoleucus, Gould, P. Z. S. 1846, p. 90,

sp. 16.

Leucippus pallidus, Tacz. P. Z. S. 1874, p. 542.

Hab. Peru and Bolivia.

This species, first procured by Tschudi in Peru, has received

Type >S//edmewA' o/'Trocliilidis. 9

many names by different authors. The specimens with white spots in the tail, which may possibly be females, were named by Mr. Gould L. hypoleucus ; but this has been placed as a synonym of Tschudi's appellation by that naturalist. Re- cently Mr. Buckley has brought specimens from Bolivia, which, on comparison with Tschudi^s type, are found to be the same. This genus, therefore, will consist only of two species*, the present and the L. chlorocercus, Gould, de- scribed in the ' Proceedings ' of the Zoological Society for 1866, p. 194, which differs chiefly in having the throat spot- ted with brown, instead of being pure white. Tschudi's bird was first described as T. leucogaster {loc. cit.), a name after- wards altered to T. chionogaster in the '^ Fauna Peruana;' the name first applied must, of course, be the one adopted.

In the year 1865, in the ' Annals ' of the Florence Mu- seum, Sig. Benvenuti described four species of Humming- birds, coming from New Granada, as new. The descriptions given, and the comparisons made, did not indicate them as belonging to unknown forms; but it was impossible to deter- mine their real specific value without having access to the examples themselves. Having requested Dr. Giglioli to for- ward the types to me, he most kindly sent three of them (all that were in the museum) ; and I am now able to determine

* In the P. Z. S. for 1874, M. Taczanowski described a specimen of Leucippiis as L, liallidus, from Peru, dift'ering from L. leucogaster in being slightly lai-ger, and having a "nuance grisatre " on the back and head. This is undoubtedly " Trochiliis turneri,'^ Bom-cier (Revue Zoologique 1846, p. 313), the type of which is in my collection, and which is cha- racterized in his description as having " la tete, cou, dos, couvertures alaires at caudales vert grisatre luisant." This has long since been placed among the synonyms of Z. leucogaster, as being simply a phase of plu- mage that is met with in nearly every group of the TrochUidae, where specimens are found that exhibit a colour slightly at variance with the typical style, as, for instance, yellowish green, or, as in this case, greyish gTeen, instead of pure green. These differences, however, like those of slight variations in length of bill, wings, or tail, have no specific value. I have therefore placed L. jmlliclus among the synonyms of L. leucogaster ; for it does not seem to be at all necessary to elevate L. turneri into a separate species, of which L. pallidm of Taczanowski would certainly be a svuonvm.

10 Mr. D. G. Elliot on some Trochilidye.

these without any doubt whatever. The birds named were Polytmus {Campyloptenis) cecilice, Mellisaga {PanopUtes) Judith, Mellisuga {Cynanthus) salvadorii, and Mellisuga {Eri- ocnemis) ridolfii. The first of these I have not seen, as it is in the Museum of Turin ; but on writing to Count Salva- dori, he assures me that it is only a female of Campylopterus lazulus ; and I believe this identification to be perfectly cor- rect. The second is

Mellisuga (Panoplites) judith.

Mellisuga judith, Benv. Ann. del R. Mus. Florent. 1865, p. 203, sp. 11.

This bird proves to be the Panoplites flavescens, w^ith which Signer Benvenuti had compared it; and I cannot perceive that the differences given by him were in any way of suffi- cient consequence to cause him to give the specimen a new name. It is a male, in adult plumage ; and the name of M. judith must become a synonym of P. flavescens.

The third was named

Mellisuga (Cynanthus) salvadorii.

Mellisuga salvadorii, Benv. Ann. del R. Mus. Floren. 1865, p. 204.

The type of this so-called species is an adult female of Cy- nanthus cyanurus in the ordinary state of plumage, such as is commonly observed in all the specimens of this sex com- ing from Bogota. There is nothing to distinguish it as dis- tinct; and the name given by Sig. Benvenuti must become a synonym.

The last described is

Mellisuga (Eriocnemis) ridolfii.

Mellisuga ridolfii, Benv. Ann. del R. Mus. 1865, p. 205.

This bird, on examination, proves also to be a female of a well-known species, Eriocnemis vestita, one of the commonest and best-known among Humming-birds. The name ridolfii must sink into a synonym.

It is a pity that before naming these birds as distinct. Signer Benvenuti had not followed the advice given to him by M. Salle in the letter pul)lishcd in his article, and sent

Mr. R. Ridgway on the Genus Glaucidium.


them to Paris or London, where they would at once have been identified, and thus some useless synonyms have been spared from our already overloaded lists, through which the much suffering naturalist is obliged to " plod his weary way/^

III, The Genus Glaucidium. By Robert Ridgway, of the Ornithological Department, U.S. National Museum, Wash- ington.

(Plate I.)

Two monographs of the genus Glaucidium have recently ap- peared— the first in the ' Proceedings ' of the Boston Society of Natural History for May 1873, by the writer, and the second in ' The Ibis ' for January 1875. The latter, by Mr. R. Bowdler Sharpe, is a review of the former paper, and em- bodies, besides certain criticisms, numerous remarks based upon very large series of the several species. The present paper represents the conclusions arrived at after a careful reconsideration of the subject, with much additional material, and the benefit of Mr. Sharpens monograph, and is intended as a special discussion of the points of variance between the two memoirs.

The following table will show the main points of relation- ship between the conclusions of the two papers referred to and those arrived at in the present one :

Ridgway, 1873.

Sharpe, 1874.

Eidgway, 1875.

1. G. passerinum, var. californicum, Scl.

1. G. gnoma {Wagl.).

1. G. gnoma (^Wagl.).

2. G. pumilum.

3. G. pumilum.

2. G. gi-iseiceps, Shrp.

> 5. G. pumilum.

3. G. lansbergii. 1

4. G. jardinii. j

5. G. jardinii.

2. G. jardinii.

6. G. ferrugineum. 0. G. infuscatum.

7. G. phalsenoides. 6. G. ferox.

> 4. G. ferrugineum.

var. gnoma.

8. G. ridgwayi.


7. G. nanum.

4. G. nanum.

3. G. nanum.

8. G. siju.

9. G. siju.

6. G. siju.

The species may be determined by the following cha- racters :

12 Mr. R. Ridgway on the Genus Glaucidium,

A. Nostril opening iu the middle of the cere.

a. Sides of the breast distinctly spotted.

1. G. GNOMA. Coloui- varj'ing from brownish plumbeous to reddish

umber. Markings on the pileum guttate or circular. Tail dusky greyish brown or blackish dusky ; bands white, not complete, 7-8. Wing 3-30-4-00 inches, tail 2-40-2-80.

2. G. JAiiDiNii. Colour varying from umber to dark sepia or bright

ferruginous. JMarkings on the pileum larger, more generally distributed, cordate or circular. Tail dusky black or dusky fer- ruginous ; bands white and incomplete, 5-7, or clear rufous, 7-8 (" lansbergi "). Wing 380-4 -2.5, tail 2-55-3-00.

3. G. NANUM. Colour varying from brownish gi-ey to reddish grey.

INFarkings on the pileum partly linear and partly guttate. Tail dusky brown ; bands clear rufous or reddish white, continuous, 8-12. Wing 3-85-4-60, taU 2'90-3-40.

b. Sides of the breast not spotted.

4. G. FEKEUGiNEUM. Colour varying from brownish grey to bright

ferruginous. Markings on the pileum narrowly linear. Tail dusky brown, brownish black, or ferruginous ; if banded, the bands clear rufous, reddish white, or pure white ; if not banded, the coloui- uniform bright rufous. Wing 3-50-4-GO, tail 2 •20-3-50.

5. G. PUMiLtJM. Colour varying from umber to rich chocolate, the

pileum abruptly greyer. Markings on the pileum minute, cir- cular or elliptical. Tail black ; bands white, not continuous, 4-5. Wing 3-30-3-70, tail 2-10-2-40.

B. Nostril opening in the anterior edge of the cere.

6. G. sur. Colour greyish brown. Markings of the pileum dia-

mond-shaped. Tail dusky brown ; bands continuous, white, white and rufous, or rufous, 6-7.

1. Glaucidium gnoma.

Glaucidium passerinum, var. calif ornicum, Ridgw. Proc. Boston Soc. N. H. May 1873, p. 94.

Glaucidium gnoma, Sharpe, Ibis, Jan. 1875, p.