/I2-

HARVARD UNIVERSITY

Library of the

Museum of

Comparative Zoology

GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS

Number 13

Brigham Young University

1992

A Catalog of Scolytidae and

Platypodidae (Coleoptera),

Part 2: Taxonomic Index

Volume A

MCZ LIBRARY

NOV 1 5 1993

HARVARD UNIVERSITY

Copyiifilil © 1992 l>y Brij^liain Youu^ University- All rights rt-servecl. i'riiitcd in the United States of America.

ISliN 0-8425-2310-3

CONTENTS

Part 2, Volume A

ABSTRACT 1

INTRODUCTION (English) 1

INTRODUCTION (French) 7

EINLEITUNG (German) 13

INTRODUCCION (Spanish) 19

LIST OF MUSEUM TYPE REPOSITORIES 25

KEY TO SUBJECT AREAS 27

FAMILY SCOLYTIDAE 28

SUBFAMILY HYLESININAE 28

Tribe Hylastini 29

Tribe Hylesinini 64

Tribe Tomicini 103

Tribe Phrixosomini 189

Tribe Hyorrhynchini 191

Tribe Diamerini 193

Tribe Bothrosternini 205

Tribe Phloeotribini 217

Tribe Phloeosinini 236

Tribe H>poborini 271

Tribe Pol)'graphini 283

SUBFAMILY SCOLYTINAE 313

Tribe Scolytini 313

Tribe Ctenophorini 383

Tribe Scol)toplat>podini 401

Tribe Micracini 408

Tribe Cactopinini 435

Tribe Carphodicticini 437

Tribe Ipini 438

Tribe Dryocoetini 539

Tribe Crypturgini 615

Tribe Xyloterini 632

Tribe Xyleborini 651

Part 2, Volume B

Tribe Xyloctonini 835

Tribe Cryphalini 842

Tribe Corthylini 949

Subtribe Pityophthorina 949

Subtribe Corthylina 1034

GENERA INCERTAE SEDIS 1082

FAMILY PLATYPODIDAE 1084

SUBFAMILY COPTONOTINAE 1084

Tribe Coptonotinae 1084

Tribe Mecopelmini 1086

Tribe Schedlarini 1087

SUBFAMILY TESSEROCERINI 1088

Tribe Diapodini 1088

Tribe Tesserocerini 1097

SUBFAMILY PLATYPODINAE 1113

Tribe PlatyjDodini 1113

HOST LIST AND SPECIES REPORTED TO ATTACK THEM .... 1241

SUPPLEMENT TO THE 1987 BIBLIOGRAPHY 1349

ADDENDUM 1440

INDEX FOR PLATYPODIDAE 1441

INDEX FOR SCOLYTIDAE 1460

Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs

A Catalog of Scolytidae and

Platypodidae (Coleoptera),

Part 2: Taxonomic Index

No. 13 Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 1992

Stephen L. Wood and Donald E. Bright, Jr."

Abstract. Cataloged in two volumes is the world fauna of Scolytidae (including two subfamilies, 25 tribes, 225 genera, and about 5,812 species) and of Platvpodidae (including three subfamilies, seven tribes, 32 genera, and 1,463 species). The higher categories are listed ph\ logeneticallv, together \vidi pertinent bibliographic citations of literature listed in a previously published bibliography. Within each genus the species are listed alphabetically together with: (1) a citation of the original description (and original genus, if different from the present genus), (2) the kind of type and its se.x, if known, (3) type localit)' (with lectot\pe designation, if applicable), (4) t\pe repositor\', (5) a representation of published figures, (6) geographical distribution, (7) host distribution, (8) three categories of notes, luid (9) citations of references to all published literature from 1758 to 1991. Reference citations for each species ive divided into eight subject areas, with authors listed alphabeticaUy (including year and page citations) within each of the subject areas. Syiionyins for genera and for species- group names are listed by chronological priority below the valid name for the taxon together with type validation data, notes, and references. Infrasubspecific names are cited under notes of the valid taxon. An appendix to the catdog includes: (a) a world host-list, with the beetle species reported to attack each plant species listed, and (b) a supplement to the prexiously published bibliography (Wood & Bright 1987) that updates the original to the end of 1989. An index lists aO nominate taxa and their associated nomen nudums. Tliis is the first serious attempt to catalog the world fauna of Scolytidae since 1910 and Platvpodidae since 1914.

The following pages contain the first serious cial review suggests that species cited only once

attempt to list and catalog the world fauna of constitute less than 5 percent of the total, and

ScoKtidae since Hagedorn (1910d) and of those cited fewer than five times only slightly

Plat)podidae since Strohmeyer (1914b, 1914c). more than an additional 5 percent, (b) The rate

Also included is a supplement to the bibliogra- at which species are being transported through

phy that was Part 1 of this catalog, that updates commerce to establish breeding populations in

the literature citations to the end of 1989. Cita- extra-territorial areas of the earth should be a

tions of taxonomic and biogeographic articles matter for worldwide alanii. Following a cen-

are included to 1991. tur)' when scarcely one species per decade

Items of special interest and concern to us that reached the USA, at least six species were estab-

have arisen during preparation of this volume lished there between 1985 and 1989; four addi-

include the following: (a) The quantity' of known tional species were reported in 1990 and three

biological information was a suqorise. It was more in 1991. The economic impact of these

expected that at least 20 percent of iill nominate introduced species is already being felt and will

species would be cited only once by the original increase. The fact that three of these 13 reproduce

description and that an additional 20 percent by the nonnal bisexoiiil method suggests that a

would be cited fewer than five times. A superfi- significant gap in plant inspection procedures at

I Life Science Museum and Department of Zoology, Brigham Young University'. Provo. Utah 84602.

Biosystematics Research Centre, Canada Department of .\griculture, Ottawa, Ontario. Canada KIA 0C6.

GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS

No. 13

ports of entry exists and should be a matter for great concern to agriculture and forestrv'. More extensive and more thorough surveys designed to detect introduced species, especially in the vicinit)' of major ports of entr)', are urgentlv' needed. Similar patterns of spread through commerce are a worldwide concern for all nations; none are exempt, (c) Closely related to the preceding factor is the need for more thor- ough training and additional research opportu- nities for developing insect taxonomists. We are not aware of any serious young taxonomic spe- cialists in Scolytidae or Platypodidae either in graduate school or in professional service any- where in the world. The identification of these insects is often unusually difficult and profes- sional competence requires 10 to 20 years of experience in this field. Amateur and half- trained specialists frequently make gross errors in judgment, as attested by the number and distribution of synonyms listed in this volume. These errors are frequently costly at a level that is frightening to anyone who studies the conse- quences of them. Immediate attention to this problem is needed for all insect groups having enormous economic concern, such as the ScoKtidae. All species of Scolytidae are internal plant parasites and, consequently, are potential vectors of plant disease or are of concern due to direct attack on plant hosts.

ScHEDL Factor in Scolytidae Research

This catalog would not be complete, or even understandable, without at least a brief com- ment on the procedures and activities of Karl Eduard Schedl ( 1898-1979). Schedl was a major factor in the study of Scolytidae and Platypodidae for more than 50 years. He became interested in Scolytidae at the age of 17 when he observed the frass produced by an Ijis species that was attacking a broken pine that lell across the World War I military trencii in which he was concealed. Following the war, he received training in forest ecology and soon thereafter became interested in .sy.stematics. He published 342 articles on bark beetle taxonomy and is the author of more than 2,000 nominate species. Althougli he occasionalK usvd the word "evolution," or other terms adopted from the New Systematics, his concept of the species was entirely moq)hological in the pre- 1940 sense. His use of the subspecies designation was not

that of a geographical race, but of any minute moq^hological deviation from his "type" (usu- ally they were no more than aberrations). He told SLW that he did not accept the Interna- tional Code on Zoological Nomenclature as binding for him; for this reason, he formulated his own code of nomenclature which was not written or discussed with colleagues.

Schedl had the habit of placing a manuscript name on a specimen he could not identify. These names often then remained in his collec- tion for decades and were cited repeatedly in the literature by himself or others before they were formally described or associated with a previously named species. Another confusing habit, both to himself and to colleagues, was his recognition of a "male holotype" and a "female holot)pe" for each species. This habit led, on numerous occasions, to the double description of species (and creation of homonymous syn- onyms). Fortunately, he published a list of the Plat)podidae type material in his collection (Schedl 1978a) and, later, a similar volume for ScoKtidae (Schedl 1979c). These catalogs are only partly complete, but list the "holotvpes," lectotypes, and neotypes in his collection. Many of these designations are invalid and, conse- quently, should be used with caution. Many of the species he had previously named from svoi- typic series were incorrectly given a "holotspe," most of the lectotypes are listed with no indica- tion of their geographical origin or of other data associated with the selection, and, in our opin- ion, none of the neotypes meet the require- ments of the Code.

Another item requiring an explanation, in order for the reader to iniderstand this catalog, is how a significant portion of the Eggers Col- lection came into the possession of Schedl. Near the end of World War II, Hans Eggers, the acknowledged world authority on Scolytidae at that time, contacted W. H. Anderson, curator of Scolytidae and Plat>podidae at the Smithsonian Institution, and offered to sell his collection to them for $4,000. The Smithsonian accepted the offer and piiid the full amount to Eggers in advance. Eggers began to pack and siiij) the collection to Washington, but he died when less than one-third of it had been sent. Because of the military occupation of CTermanv and travel difficulties in Eur()|:)e at the close of the war, a European entomologist was engaged to com- plete the packing and shipping of the collection. That entomologi.st was Karl E. Schedl (Anderson,

1992

WOOD. BHICFIT: CATALOG T\XONOMIC INDEX, INTRODUCTION

W. H. & Anderson 1971:1-2). Onlv a fragment of that portion of the Eggers Collection placed in the care of Schedl arrived in Washington, while a snbstantial portion of both tspe and non-t\pe material appeared in the collection of Schedl.

Schedl ( 1979c:2) published an account of how this significant portion of the Eggers Collection came into his hands. He told this same, but much more detailed, account to SLW in Sep- tember 1965 at Lienz. However sincere this Schedl account might ha\e been, it is con- tradicted bv an account given bv Mrs. Viktor Butovitsch (daughter of Hans and Elsa Eggers) on separate occasions to L. G. E. Kalshoven and F. G. Browne and reported to SLW. In her account, Schedl simpK took what he wanted for his own use. The documentable facts bearing on this transaction are: (1) At the time of her husband's death, Elsa Eggers was senile to the point that "she did not even know her own name." After Hans died, their daughter was her legal guardian and conducted all of her personal business, none of which involved the collection or Schedl. (2) In 1952 and again in 1961, W H. Anderson and S. L. Wood together examined and reviewed a large number (more than 20) of Smithsonian Institution (USNM) loan forms that were tvpewTitten, single-spaced, and signed by Karl E. Schedl acknowledging receipt of several hundred primarv and secondan t\pes taken on loan from the Eggers Collection while Schedl prepared it for shipment. These loan forms had been imposed upon Schedl bv the U.S. militar\- attache who supenised Schedl's packing and sorting of the collection. Schedl apparently did not know those forms were sent directly to the Smithsonian Institution. Accord- ing to W H. Anderson, and D. M. Anderson (his successor), and confirmed by our own indepen- dent observations, none of that material was ever returned to Washington. In our catalog, problems related to conflicting statements on repositories are cited repeatedlv. Similar prob- lems with unretumed loans from the Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun, from CSIRO, Canberra, and from other institutions are cited throughout the catalog.

In order for the user of this catalog to under- stand how a dozen Eichhoff tvpes came into the possession of Schedl, the following is gi\en. As told by Schedl to SLW in September 1965. near the close of World War II, Schedl was a major in die Geniian arm\' and had some resjx)nsibilit\'

for the management of forested areas in the Nazi (German) occupied countries of Europe. Schedl was in Poland when the eastern front collapsed, and before he fled he stopped at the Stettin Mu.seum where the Dohrn Collection was housed (that collection included a dozen or more of Eichhoff t)pes). When Schedl reached the musevmi, it had been abandoned except for the curator of Coleoptera who was just leaxing. According to Schedl, when he asked the curator about the Eichhoff t\pes, the curator told him to take them and flee for his life. Except for these specimens, the material in the Stettin Museum was destroyed by the war.

Materials and Methods

As mentioned in the Introduction to Part 1 of this catalog (Wood & Bright 1987), the catalog had its beginnings in 1946 when SLW began taxonomic and author card files in conjunction with a systematic search of literature treating ScoKtidae and Platvpodidae worldwide. These card files were continued until about 1980, but are reasonably complete only to 1970. These files are supplemented bv a pinned collection of more than 100,000 specimens of ScoKtidae and 3,000 of Plat\podidae and a large collection of duplicate material preser\'ed in ethanol. Of this material, most, including more than 2,000 bio- logical species, were collected by himself from North and South America, Asia, Australia, Europe, Japan, New Guinea, and Sri Lanka. In addition, from 1960 to 1990, SLW exchanged identified specimens with several major muse- ums and with Browne, Krivolutskaya, Kurenzov, Muravama, Schedl, etc. He has pro\ided an identification service to professional colleagues in exchange for a portion of the specimens sub- mitted b)- them for identification from 1945 until the present time. In order to authenticate the identification of species, he has taken exam- ples for direct comparison to primar\- tvpes to: AMNH (New York), CAS (San Francisco), MCZ (Cambridge), USNM (Washington), CNCl (Ottawa) in North America; BMNH (London), IZL (Leningrad), IZM (Moscow), MZU (Helsinki), MNHN (Paris), NHMW (Wien), Schedl Collection (Lienz) in Europe; FBI (Dehra Dun), Nobuchi Collection (Ibaraki) in Asia. Numerous primarv and sec- ondar\' t\pes ha\e been examined through brief loans from numerous other museums and private sources. He has examined authentic specimens

GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS

No. 13

of about two-thirds of the nominate species Usted below.

DEB became acquainted with cataloging pro- cedures during 1961-1963 while he was a grad- uate student working; with SLW. This interest intensified during the 1970s, and in 1981, the authors united their efforts to compile this cat- alog. DEB has collected extensively in Canada, USA, and Mexico in North America and in Borneo. He has been a research scientist at the Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arach- nids, and Nematodes (CNCI, Ottawa) since 1966. He has \dsited the following museums for the purpose of studying type material for this proj- ect and related research: CAS (San Francisco), FMNH (Chicago), MCZ (Cambridge), USNM (Washington), Wood Collection in North Amer- ica; BMNH (London), MNHN (Paris), NHMW (Wien) in Europe. Numerous additional pri- mary types have been examined through brief loans from other museums and private sources. An identification service, similar to that outlined above, has been provided since 1966.

In order for the user to understand and deal effectively with errors that may be found in the catalog, an understanding of the procedures followed in compiling it is essential. Basic infor- mation on each taxon included in the catalog was organized on data sheets of two kinds: (1) genus-group category sheets, and (2) species- group category sheets. On these sheets, the name, author(s), type data, type repository data, original genus, subsequent genus, source of original description, valid name of ta.xon, notes, geographical distribution, and hosts were listed on one side of the sheet. On the reverse or back side of each sheet, citations were written by hand under each of the eight categories cited in the introduction of Part 1 of this catalog (Wood & Bright 1987:3-16). SLW was responsible for the review of literature published from 1758 to 1959; he and his staff worked at the M. L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young Univer- sity, Provo, Utah, USA. DEB was responsible for the review of literature from 1960 to 1989; he and his staff worked at the Canadian National Collection oi Insects, Arachnids, and Nema- todes, Canada Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

In the review of literature available^ to us (Wood& Bright 1987, references not marked bv an [°] asterisk), each of us (SLW and DEB) extracted names to be indexed and wrote the beetle names, author, year of publication

(including subletters), and page numbers on slips of paper. These data were then copied by technical staff on the back side of the data sheets cited above in the appropriate subject areas on those sheets. Many of the references marked with an asterisk {") in the 1987 volume have since been found and the data have been indexed.

The senior author entered: (Item A) the basic taxonomic and distributional data from the data sheets into an IBM/PS Model 30 computer that had been networked with other museum com- puters to expand capacity'. Each nominate taxon was then assigned a code number based on (a) three digits to identify the genus name, (b) three digits to identify the valid species name, and (c) two digits to identify the subspecies or synonym names. A word processor specialist then entered by computer number (Item B) all citations of each taxon in the appropriate subject areas for literature published from 1758 to 1959. The same procedure was followed at Ottawa for entering on a similar computer (Item C) all citations from 1960 to 1989. Copies of data diskettes, along with a hard copy of their con- tents, were then sent from Ottawa to Provo. The word processor specialist then combined in the computer Items B and C, alphabetized and edited the citations, then transferred the com- bined Items B and C to Item A to produce a rough draft of the full text of the catalog. On a few occasions, an error was made in entering the proper code number. We hope we have found and corrected all such errors, but the user should be alerted to the fact that all may not have been found.

At this point, the senior author then reviewed his taxonomic card files that were a composite of his entries from original Hterature that had been supplemented by entries from similar files microfilmed for him by the Smithsonian Insti- tution and representing 50 years of independent research at Washington. Entries in the rough draft data base were then checked and supple- mented bv the card file entries, thus signifi- cantlv (\\panding and verifying entries in the rough draft. Hard copies of the corrected manuscipt were then prepared and given to each author for detailed review and were checked item bv item with the original data sheets. The final draft was prepared following entr)' of these corrections.

In the review of original articles, names were often cited on only one ptige even though the

1992

WOOD, BRIGHT: CATALOG TAXONOMIC INDEX, INTRODUCTION

name of that taxon may have appeared many times within that article. We note also that, in using the supplementary card file, indexers who prepared those files may have cited (a) only page one of the article, or (b) the entire article (e.g., pages 1-40) as appl)ing to this taxon, when in reality the name is cited only once on page 34. Even though this may be misleading, it enabled us to cite definite references to numerous arti- cles we could not examine (those marked by an ["] asterisk in the bibKography).

The assignment of articles to eight subject areas, while a good idea, was not as practical as one might have supposed. Many published arti- cles were clearly assignable to one or more definite subject areas; others were not. We sometimes disagreed on the proper assignment, and even found ourselves assigning a given arti- cle to one subject area on one day and to a different subject area the next. One should pay attention to all eight subject areas when review- ing literature for a more restricted subject.

We fully realize that cataloging is an on-going process to which many contribute. The articles we have found and reviewed, for the most part, represent only those segments of literature in which key words attracted reviewers' attention. There is a large quantity of literature hidden in the archives of ecolog)', forestry, systematics, etc., which has not yet come to the attention of catalogers, that will be very useful. Perhaps this catalog will stimulate others to contribute addi- tional information from such hidden sources.

Procedures

Species contained in this catalog are organ- ized under two families: Scolytidae and Plat\podidae. All species assigned to these fam- ilies from 1758 to 1991 and their synonyms known to us are included. Within each family, the subfamilies, tribes, and genera are organ- ized phylogenetically as presented in Wood (1986a) for Scolytidae. Because there is no modem classification of Platypodidae available, this family is organized on a tentative phyloge- netic arrangement that is based on a combina- tion of Strohmeyer (1914b, 1914c), Schedl (1939p), and tentative concepts of SLW. The references listed under familv, subfamily, and tribe headings are not intended to be exliaus- tive, but include only those works thought to be significant in the development of classification of the group. Citations of references listed

under each species are as complete as our resources permitted. As indicated above, the cutoff date is 1989 for all subject areas except for taxonomic and geographical data.

The species within each genus that are recog- nized here as valid are listed in bold type in alphabetical order with their authors. The author name is followed in regular type by: (a) the year and page in which the name was first validated in nomenclature (this date is the one given in Part 1 of the bibliography of this catalog [Wood & Bright 1987] regardless of other con- siderations, and, in some instances, is known to be technically incorrect; most discrepancies are noted). When the species was originally named in a genus other than the one to which it is now assigned, that original genus is given in paren- theses following the page number and before the period [.]. (b) The period is followed by an indication of the kind of primary type on which the taxon is based (holotype, lectotype, neot)'pe, syntype) and the sex of the type, if known. The type information is concluded by a semicolon [;]. (c) The semicolon is followed by the t\^e locality; as given in the original publication. When a discrepancy between the published type locality and that given on the labels of the type is known, the change is noted. Several authors, notably Schedl, listed all localities from which both primary and secondary types came; when this situation was found, we listed all local- ities. The type locality information is concluded with a semicolon [;]. (d) The semicolon is fol- lowed by a designation of the t)'pe repository' as published with the original description. When the designated repositor)' is different from the present location of the t\pe, the change is noted. For example, several hundred of the Eggers types that belong to the Smithsonian Institution are presently in NHMW, Wien (see above remarks under "Schedl Factor . . ."). The names of most repositories are reduced to initials of the repository', and these initials are followed by the name of the city (or for Madagascar, by the name of the island). The full names of the repositories are given at the end of this Introduction. The full names of infrequentlv cited repositories are given in full. Persouiil collections are cited by the name of the owner, followed by the city name, if known, (e) When lectotypes have been designated, the name, year, and page of lecto- type designation are given following a comma after the repository' name and cit^'.

Indented below each valid species name, the

GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS

No. 13

following may appear: (a) figures: the citation of figures is given only when a figure of suitable quality is available. Poor quality figures and multiple citations were avoided, (b) Geograph- ical distribution is given alphabetically with the countries of a particular continent clustered but separated from one another by a slash [/]. Sub- divisions within a country are separated by commas. A few departures from normal geo- graphical designations are incorporated in this section: (1) the Baliama Islands and Trinidad Island are treated as islands of the Antilles Islands, not as part of their adjacent continents; (2) Sakhalin Island (USSR), the Japanese Islands, Taiwan, and Hong Kong are all treated as part of Asia; (3) the Andaman Islands and Nicobar Islands are treated as part of India; (4) Malaya refers only to the continental peninsula and includes Singapore, it is not synon)aiious with Malaysia; (5) in order to conserve space for the frequently cited Malayan Archipelago, the inaccurate designation "Indonesia" was employed to include most of Indonesia, but excluded all of New Guinea, and included insu- lar Malaysia; and (6) African islands were listed separately but clustered wath African countries, except Madagascar which is treated as a sepa- rate land mass, (c) Hosts are listed alphabeti- cally by the scientific names used by the authors of the articles cited. In most instances, we did not modernize the nomenclature or correct errors in spelling of hosts unless we were thor- oughly familiar with the names, (d) Notes fall into three categories that are designated by numbers: category (1) notes include informa- tion that impacts nomenclature; category (2) notes pertain to synonymy; and category (3) notes convey significant messages from the authors of the present catalog to the reader and cite redescriptions, nomen nudums, and other information of importance.

Subspecies are geographical races that form distinctive populations that may intergrade with other subspecies. Because bark and ambrosia beetles are essentially internal plant parasites that are subjected while within th(Mr host to very limited environmental stresses, geographical races are uncommon in these families. Subspe- cies are recognized here only when sufficiently thorough studies have been made to convince the authors that recognizable geographical races exist. Almost all of Schedl's subspecies, and those of most other authors prior to 1960, are either aberrations that have no status in

nomenclature or are cryptic (or sibling) species that are actually good species that lack obvious diagnostic characters. The names of subspecies recognized here have the subspecific and author names in bold type and are indented below the name of the species to which they belong. When subspecies are recognized, the names of syn- onyms of each subspecies are listed below the bold type name of the subspecies to which they belong.

Synonyms are indented below the valid names to which they belong; they are given in italics in chronological priority. The data on their tyjjes are listed as given for the valid species names to which we have added the original and other significant citations that establish synonymy.

Nomen nudums that have been cited in syn- onymy are listed in the index and in the category (3) Notes under the valid names. Nomen nudums of unknown species affinity were omit- ted from this catalog.

Under the side-heading "References," below each nominate taxon, the citations to published literature are presented. These are organized under the eight subject areas described in Wood & Bright (1987:16). These citations are organ- ized alphabetically by author name(s). Author names are spelled as in Wood & Bright (1987) and exclude diacritic marks or spelling changes used to compensate for the removal of diacritic marks (except, Dobner =Doebner).

Eight genera, of which five are known only as fossils, are listed in the Incerta Cedis category. The types of two Hving genera in this category were from Africa and are now lost. Their place- ment must await additional information. The eighth genus was named so recently that we have not had time to locate the tyjDCS.

Acknowledgments

This segment of the catalog is an index to the work of others. We recognize and appreciate the efforts of the thousands of authors who have contributed toward the expansion of our knowl- edge of the Scolytidae and Plat)podidae. We sincerely appreciate the help we have received from himdreds of librarians who have made special efforts to procure photocopies of needed articles for our use. We also thank the many curators of collections who assisted us as we examined ty|)e material at their nuiseums, and those who arranged for loans that enabled us to resolve numerous tiLxonomic problems.

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WOOD, BRIGHT: CATALOG TAXONOMIC INDEX, INTRODUCTION

We are most appreciative to a dedicated staff who endured much or all of the seven years required by this project, for their help in this monotonous and boring task. The staff at Brig- ham Young Universit)' consisted of Rita Farias Espinel (1 year), Nadja Kummer (1 year), Imelda Lom (1 year), Pilar Pizarro Sweany (3 years) who aided in the extraction of citations; Carla folavne Rice (2 years) operated the com- puter; Dr. C. Selbv Herrin (7 vears) did all of the computer programming, consulting, nicunte- nance, and management. The staff at Ottawa consisted of Jennifer Read (4 years) who aided with bibliography preparation, Robert E. Skidmore (2 years) was a general project assis- tant, Derrik Bell ( 1 year) was a computer entry speciiilist, Larry Spears (2 years) was the com- puter programmer and consultant.

The work at Brigham Young Universit}' was financed through major research awards received from the U.S. Department of Agricul- ture, Competitive Research Grants Program grant number 87-CRCR-1-25S2, and through the National Science Foundation, Biological Research Resources Program award number 8711632. The work at Ottawa was financed by the Canada Department of Agriculture.

We thank our colleagues who kindly con- sented to prepare translations of this Introduc- tion for the benefit of users.

INTRODUCTION

Les pages qui suivent representent le premier essai serieux d'un catalogage de la faune mondiale des Scolytidae depuis Hagedoni (191()d) et des Plat>podidae depuis Strohmeyer (1914b, 1914c). Est egalement incorjDore un supplement de mise a jour de la bibliographic (cf. 1^"^*^ partie de ce catalogue) jusqu'a la fin de 1989. Les notes de systematique et de biogeographie sont incluses jusqu'en 1991.

Les faits dun interet particulier qui sont apparus durant la preparation de ce volume son les suivants: (a) la quantite d'infomiations biologiques connues a ete une suqorise. Nous pensions qu'au moins 20% des especes nominales ne seraient citees qu'une seule fois par la description originale, et qu'environ 20% des autres especes seraient citees moins de 5 fois. Une estimation rapide montre que les especes qui ne sont citees qu'une fois ne representent que moins de 5% du total, et que celles citees moins de 5 fois representent un pen plus de 5%. (b) Le taux d'introduction des

especes par le biais des echanges commerciaux et qui s'etablissent hors de leur zone d'origine doit etre un sujet d'inquietude au niveau mon- dial. Apres un siecle durant lequel a peine un espece par decennie atteignait les Etats-Unis d'Amerique, au moins six especes s'y son etablies entre 1985 et 1989; quatre autres especes ont ete repertoriees en 1990, et encore trois autres en 1991. Limpact economique de ces especes introduites se fait dores et deja sentir et ne fera que s'accroitre. Le fait que trois de ces treize especes se reproduisent normale- ment suggere qu'il existe une lacune tres signif- icative dans les procedures phvtosanitaires portuaires et ceci doit etre un sujet de preoc- cupation pour Fagriculture et la sylviculture. Des procedures plus rigoureuses destinees a detecter deventuelles introductions, en particulier a proximite des terminaux pro- tuaires, devraient etre mises en place de maniere urgente. Ce ty^pe de dissemination par les circuits commerciaux est un sujet de preoccupation pour toutes les Nations, aucune n'en est exempte. (c) En rapport etroit avec le facteur precedent, apparait la necessite imperieuse de developper la taxonomie des insectes et de former serieusement des taxon- omistes. A notre connaissance, il n y a actuelle- ment pas dans le monde de jeunes taxonomistes specialises dans I'etude des Scol)tidae ou des Plat)podidae, que ce soit dans les Uni\ersites, ou dans des organismes publics. L'identification de ces insectes est souvent d'une rare difficulte, et une competence professionnelle dans ce domaine ne s'acquiert que sur une periode de 10 a 20 ans. Les amateurs et les professionnels non specialistes commettent souvent de gros- sieres erreurs de jugement comme cela est atteste dans le present volume par le nombre des synon)TOes. Ces erreurs sont souvent couteuses par les consequences qu'elles entrainent. Une attention immediate a ces problemes d'introduction est indispensable pour tons les groupes d'insectes d'importance economique comme les ScoKtidae. Toutes les especes de cette famille sont des parasites internes de plantes et sont de ce fait des vecteurs potentiels de maladies ou des depredateurs directs des plantes-hotes.

Le CAS SCHEDL

Notre catalogue serait incomplet, ou meme incomprehensible, sans au moins un bref com- mentaire sur le comportement et les activites de

GREAT BASIN NATURALIST MEMOIRS

No. 13

Karl Eduard Schedl (1898-1979). Schedl fut un acteur important dans I'etude des Scolytidae et des PlatyjDodidae pendant plus de cinquante ans. Il s'interessa aux Scolytidae vers I'age de 17 ans lorsqu'il obseiva le "frass" produit par une espece d'Ips attaquant un pin casse qui etait tombe en travers d'une tranchee dans laquelle il se trouvait pendant la Premiere Guerre mondiale. Apres cette guerre il suivit des cours d'entomologie forestiere et s'interessa rapide- ment a la systematique des Scolytidae. Il a public 342 notes de taxonomie et est I'auteur de plus de 2 000 especes nominales. Bien qu'utilisant parfois le mot "evolution" ou d'autres termes adoptes par la "Nouvelle Systematique," son concept personnel de I'espece etait entierement morphologique, dans le sens pre-1940. L'utilisation qu'il fait de la sous-espece ne conceme pas une "race" geographique, mais uniquement de tres faibles variations morphologiques deviant du "type" (il ne s'agissait de rien d'autre que d'aberrations). Il raconta un jour a SLW qu'il considerait que les regies du Code international de nomencla- ture zoologique n'etainent pas un obligation pour lui. Pour cette raison il formula son propre code de nomenclature qui ne fut jamais ecrit, et qui de ce fait ne put jamais etre discute.

Schedl avait pour habitude de placer un nom provisoire sous chaque individu qu'il ne pouvait identifier immediatement. Quelquesuns de ces noms sont restes ainsi pendant des decennies, bien que lui et d'autres les aient cite de nombreuses fois dans la litterature, avant qu'ils ne soient formellement publics ou rapportes a une espece deja connue. Une autre habitude deroutante qui lui etait propre, ainsi qu'a d'autres collegues, etait la designation d'un holotype male et d'un holotype femelle pour chaque espece. Cette habitude amena en de nombreuses occasions a une double description des especes (et done a la creation de synonymes qui sont aussi des homonymes). Fort heureuse- ment il a pubhe une liste des materiaux typiques de Platypodidae de sa collection (Schedl 1978a), et un pen plus tard un volume similaire pour les Scolytidae (1979c). Ces catalogues son incomplets, mais recensent les "holotyjoes," lectotyjjes et neotyjDes de sa collection. Beaucoup de ces designations sont invalides et doivent en consequence etre utilisees avec pru- dence. Un grand nombre de ses "holoty|oes" proviennent de series syntypiques, la plupart des lectotypes son designes sans indication

d'origine geographique ou d'elements associes a ce choix. Enfin a notre avis, aucun des neotypes nest conforme aux regies du Code.

Un dernier element necessitant une explica- tion afin que les utilisateurs du catalogue com- prennent bien le probleme, es comment une partie de la Collection Eggers parvint en posses- sion de Schedl. Vers la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, Hans Eggers, le specialiste mondial des Scolytidae a cette epoque, contacta W. H. Anderson, Conservateur des Scolytidae et PlatyjDodidae a la Smithsonian Institution et offrit de vendre sa collection pour 4 000 $. La Smithsonian accepta I'offre et paya la totalite de la somme immediatement. Eggers commenga le conditionnement et I'expedition de sa collec- tion a Washington, mais deceda brutalement alors que seulement un tiers de la collection avait ete expediee. Du fait de I'occupation militaire en Allemagne et des difficultes de deplacement en Europe a la fin de la guerre, un entomologiste europeen fut embauche pour terminer I'expedition. Get entomologiste etait Karl E. Schedl (Anderson, W. H. & Anderson 1971 : 1-2). Force est de constater que seulement une petite partie du reste de la collection Eggers confiee aux soins de Schedl arriva a Washington, alors qu'une partie substantielle du materiel tyjDique et non-typique se retrouva dans la col- lection Schedl.

Schedl (1979c:2) a expUque comment cette part significative de la collection Eggers est entree en sa possession. Il repeta ceci, de maniere beaucoup plus detaillee a SLW en septembre 1965 a Lienz. Cependant, pour sincere que soit le recit de Schedl il est en contradiction avec ce que racontra Mme Buto- vitsch (femme de Viktor Butovitsch et fille de Hans et Elsa Eggers) a diverses occasions a L. G. E. Kalshoven et F. G. Browne, propos qui furent rapportes a SLW. Dans cette version, Schedl aurait simplement conserve ce qui lui plaisait pour son usage personnel. Les fiiits averes en rapport avec la transaction sont les suivants: (1) A la mort de son mari, Elsa Eggers etait senile au point "de ne pouvoir se souvenir de son propre nom. " Apres la mort de Hans, leur fille devenue le "tuteur" legal s'occupait de toutes ses affaires, mais en aucun cas de ce qui concemait la collection de son pere ou de Schedl. (2) En 1952, et de nouveau en 1961, W. H. Anderson et S. L. Wood en etudiant un grand nombre (plus de 20) feuilles de pret de la Smithsonian, constaterent qu'elles etaient

1992

WOOD, BRIGHT: CATALOG TAXONOMIC INDEX, INTRODUCTION

toutes tapees a la machine, a intervale simple, et signees par K. E. Schedl qui reconnaissait done de facto avoir en communication plusieurs centiiines de t\pes primaires et secondaires pris dans la collection Eggers pendant qu'il preparait I'expedition du reste de cette collec- tion. La redaction de ces feuilles de pret fut imposee a Schedl par I'Attache militaire U.S. qui supervisait le tri et la preparation de la collection. Il semble que Schedl ignorait que ces feuilles etaient envoyees immediatement a la Smithsonian a Washington. SelonW. H. Ander- son et D. M. Anderson (son successeur), et confirme par nos propres observations, aucun de ces materiaux ne fut jamais rendu a Washing- ton. Dans notre catalogue, nous soulevons de nombreux cas d'incoherence sur le lieu de con- servation de ces materiaux. D'autres problemes de cette nature concernant des prets du Research Institute, Dehra Dun; du CSIRO, Canberra; et d'autres instituts son cites tout au long du catalogue.

Enfin, pour que I'utilisateur de notre cata- logue sache comment une douzaine de types de Eichhoff parvinrent en possession de Schedl, nous pouvons rapporter ce que Schedl lui- meme raconta a SLW en Septembre 1965. Vers la fin de la guerre, Schedl etiiit officier dans I'armee Allemand et occupait des fonctions de responsabilite dans la gestion des regions forestieres des pays occupes par les troupes Allemand. Schedl etait alors en Pologne quand le front Est s ecroula. Avant de s'enfuir il s'arreta au Musee de Stettin oij etait conservee la col- lection Dohrn (qui contenait une douzaine ou plus de types de Eichhoff). Lorsque Schedl arriva au Musee, seul le consen^iteur de la sec- tion Coleopteres etait encore present, mais s'appretait a fuir. Selon les dires de Schedl, lorqu'il demanda a ce conservateur les tyjDes de Eichhoff, celuici lui dit de les prendre et de s'enfuir Toutes les collections du Musee de Stettin furent completement detmites, sauf ces quelques speciments.

Materiels et Methodes

Comme il est fait mention dans I'Introduction de la Partie 1 (Wood & Bright 1987), les premices de ce catalogue remontent a 1946 lorsque SLW commenga un fichier taxonomique et d'auteurs, en meme temps qu'il entreprenait de maniere systematique des recherches sur la litterature traitant des

Scolytidae et des Plat)podidae du monde. Ces fichiers furent continues jusqu'aux environs de 1980, mais ne sont, a cette date, vraiment com- plets que jusqu'en 1970. Ces fichiers son accompagnes d'une collection d'insectes piques comprenant plus de 100 000 specimens de Scolytidae et 3 000 Platvpodidae, ainsi qu'une importante collection de doubles conserves en alcool. La plupart de ce materiel, incluant en outre plus de 2 000 especes biologiques, fut recolte par lui-meme sur le continent americain, en Asie, en Australie, en Europe, au Japon, en Nouvelle-Guinee et au Sri Lanka. De plus, de 1960 a 1990, SLW a echange des specimens identifies avec plusieurs Musees ainsi qu'avec Browne, Krivolutskaya, Kurenzov, Murayama, Schedl, etc. Il a fournit des identifi- cations a ses collegues professionnels en echange d'une partie du materiel soumis de 1945 a aujourd'hui. Afin de s'assurer de I'identite des especes, il a procede a des com- paraisons directes avec les types primaires des institutions suivantes: AMNH (New York), CAS (San Francisco), MCZ (Cambridge, Mass.), USNM (Washington), CNCI (Ottawa) en Amerique du Nord; BMNH (Londres), IZL (St. Peterbourg), IZM (Moscou), MZU (Helsinki), MNHN (Paris), NHMW(Vienne), la Collection Schedl (Lienz) en Europe; FRI (Dehra Dun), la Collection Nobuchi (Ibarald) en Asie. De nombreux types primaires et secondaires out ete etudies a I'occasion de prets de nombreux autres Musees ou collections privees. Il a examine les specimens originaux d'environ deux tiers